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Special Collection: Poverty and Domestic Violence

This special collection includes a categorized and selected listing of articles, fact sheets, papers, reports and surveys. It is offered as an additional tool to assist advocates working on and interested in poverty and how it relates to ending violence against women. Items may appear in more than one category for ease of use. Direct links to the documents are provided from this page. Those interested in this topic may also want to review material contained in the topic area welfare. Comments and content suggestions welcome. Contact the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence at 1-800-537-2238; 1-800-553-2508 (TTY).

Table of Contents:

   
  • Acronym & Abbreviation Key
    Click here for a list of organizational, legislative, and trade-related acronyms and terms contained in the annotated entries of this special poverty collection.

Domestic Violence & Poverty | Back to top

Items listed here explicitly discuss domestic violence and poverty.

  • Poverty and Sexual Violence: Building Prevention and Intervention Responses | PDF PDF (110 p.)
    by Donna Greco and Sarah Dawgert, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape (2007)
    There is a complex and often reciprocal relationship between poverty and sexual violence. This guide is intended to support rape crisis centers in their economic advocacy efforts at all levels of the organization.
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  • Financial Empowerment Curriculum: Moving Ahead Through Financial Management | HTML HTML (1 p.)
    by The Allstate Foundation and the National Network to End Domestic Violence, Inc. (May 2010)
    This curriculum can help domestic violence survivors who are struggling to eat, find a safe place to live, hold a job, achieve academic goals, support children, seek asylum from cruelty, protect assets, or overcome identity theft.
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  • Economic Empowerment of Domestic Violence Survivors | PDF PDF (13 p.) HTML HTML
    by Judy L. Postmus in consultation with Rene Renick, Sandra Mayoral Pedroarias, and Kim Pentico, VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (October 2010)
    This Applied Research paper reviews and critiques the existing literature on economic abuse experienced by domestic violence survivors and selected economic empowerment programs designed to address such abuse and its aftermath.
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  • Domestic Violence at the Crossroads: Violence Against Poor Women and Women of Color | HTML HTML (9 p.)
    by Natalie J. Sokoloff (2004)
    This article explains how "failing to address multiple oppressions of poor women of color jeopardizes the validity and legitimacy of the anti-violence movement." Domestic violence is placed in a context of a larger system of violence.
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  • New Challenges for the Battered Women’s Movement: Building Collaborations and Improving Public Policy for Poor Women | PDF PDF (18 p.) HTML HTML
    by Susan Schechter, Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (January 1999)
    This paper advocates the adoption of an agenda that recognizes the importance of safety, justice and economic resources for women and their families and urges that advocates pay particular attention to the concerns and interests of poor women.
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  • Expanding Solutions for Domestic Violence and Poverty: What Battered Women with Abused Children Need from Their Advocates | PDF PDF (16 p.) HTML HTML
    by Susan Schechter, Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (June 2000)
    This paper uses examples from the child welfare system to raise questions about the limitations of current DV advocacy strategies for low-income women. The paper challenges the U.S. traditional battered women's movement to expand its solutions.
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  • Policy Blueprint on Domestic Violence and Poverty | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by Jill Davies, Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (March 2002)
    This paper offers a new and important tool for advocates working with domestic violence and poverty issues in single or multiple systems. It provides a straightforward framework for policy analysis and concrete policy implementation strategies.
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  • Early Childhood, Domestic Violence, and Poverty: Helping Young Children and Their Families | PDF PDF (180 p.)
    by Editor, Susan Schechter, University of Iowa School of Social Work (January 2004)
    This series of papers contains practical guidelines and policy recommendations for pediatric health settings, early childhood programs, family support providers, police, and DV agencies. Individual papers in the series are available for download.
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  • Domestic Violence and Poverty: The Narratives of Homeless Women | HTML HTML (20 p.)
    by Jean Calterone Williams, 19 Frontiers 143 (1998)
    This article is based on research conducted in homeless and domestic violence shelters in Phoenix, Arizona, from 1994 to 1996. The author’s report includes results of interviews with thirty-three women. Housing and employment needs are evident and primar
    + View Summary

Children & Poverty | Back to top

Those interested in data on children in poverty may also want to review material noted under “Fact Sheets” below.

  • A State by State Report on Children's Health: Family Income and Education More Important than Medical Care | HTML HTML (7 p.)
    by Maggie Mahar, The Century Foundation (October 2008)
    This article discusses a report released that reveals the degree to which a child’s health is determined by the hand s/he draws when s/he is born.
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  • Helping the Most Vulnerable Infants, Toddlers, and their Families | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Jane Knitzer and Jill Leftkowitz, National Center for Children in Poverty (January 2006)
    The issue brief discusses the challenges faced by children who grow up in low income environments. It includes statistics regarding vulnerable children and solutions to prevent vulnerable children from falling behind.
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  • Helping Young Children Birth to Five Who are Homeless | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by Sheila Ammons, Kelli Bohanon, Patricia Julianelle and Karen Walker (October 2008)
    This document demonstrates the challenges facing homeless children, as well as, explaining the McKinney-Vento Act and how it can help children.
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  • Urban and Rural Children Experience Similar Rates of Low-Income and Poverty | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Carsey Institute (Summer 2008)
    This study uses statistics to analyze the position of poor children in both urban and rural environments. The report takes into consideration type of job and ethnicity, as well as, location.
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  • Basic Facts About Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 18 | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Ayana Douglas-Hall and Michelle Chau, National Center for Children in Poverty (October 2008)
    This document gives basic information on the numbers and percentages of children living in low-income and poor families. Data includes information on employment, education, family structure, age, race and ethnicity, immigrant status, and geography.
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  • Rate of Children in Low-Income Families Varies Widely by State | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (September 2004)
    This brief provides state-by-state percentages of children in low-income families, including percentages based on age, parents with a high school degree, living with a single parent, and living with two immigrant parents.
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  • Efforts to Promote Children’s Economic Security Must Address Needs of Hard-Working Immigrant Families | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (October 2005)
    This brief covers data and statistics on low-income children in the U.S. living in immigrant families. The brief includes an overview of federal and state policy involving immigrant access to vital services/public benefits, e.g. food stamps.
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  • Family Economic (In)Security: A View from the States | HTML HTML (4 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (November 2005)
    This brief highlights the challenges of low-wage work. Sufficient income, assets, human and social capital are noted as key policy areas to meet family economic security. State-by-state policy and context profiles are available via the NCCP website.
    + View Summary

Data & Statistics | Back to top

Items listed here include reports, papers, analyses and measures of poverty in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau calculates a federal poverty measure annually using the poverty thresholds. The measure is based on the cost of food, assumes that food is 1/3 of a families’ budget, is the same for every geographic location, and varies based upon family size. A related, but slightly different, federal poverty measure are the federal poverty guidelines. The poverty guidelines are issued annually by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services and are used to determine eligibility for various social services programs. For more on the poverty guidelines, see that section herein.

  • The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR) (April 2009)
    This analysis shows that men out-earn women in nearly every occupation for which data are available.
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  • Women’s Economic Status in the States: Wide Disparities by Race, Ethnicity, and Region | HTML HTML (44 p.) PDF PDF (44 p.)
    by A. Caiazza, A. Shar, and M. Werschkul, Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2004)
    This report looks at women’s economic status across several indicators: women’s earnings, gender wage ratio, % of women in managerial/professional occupations, women’s business ownership, and poverty. State profiles are available.
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  • Poverty Thresholds 2008 | HTML HTML (1 p.)
    by U.S. Census Bureau (2008)
    This document is the table outlining the poverty thresholds for 2008, by size of family and number of related children under 18.
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  • Poverty: 2007 Highlights | HTML HTML (1 p.)
    by U.S. Census Bureau (2007)
    This statistical brief highlights data on the official poverty rate, the numbers of people in poverty, poverty rates by ethnicity and race, and poverty rates by age.
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  • Low-Income Children in the United States | PDF PDF (56 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (September 2006)
    This annual report gives a statistical overview of numbers and percentages of children living in low-income and poor families. Highlighted demographics include age of children, race and ethnicity, and common misconceptions.
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  • Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007 | PDF PDF (84 p.)
    by U.S. Census Bureau (August 2008)
    This annual report covers income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the U.S. Each main section includes highlights and discussion by race/ethnicity, nativity, age, and region. State level data is provided.
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  • A Profile of the Working Poor, 2007 | PDF PDF (14 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (May 2006)
    This report highlights statistics showing that 3 in every 5 of the working poor usually worked full time and that higher education attainment greatly diminish a person’s classification as working and poor. Race, ethnicity and gender differences are noted
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  • Why Did Poverty Rise in 2004? A Preliminary Analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau’s Poverty Report | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by National Poverty Center (Fall 2005)
    This newsletter article analyzes 2004 poverty data from the U.S. Census Bureau by looking at who are the poor, for whom did poverty increase, and why poverty rose over the last year.
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  • Poverty and Low-Wage Work 40 Years After the Declaration of the War on Poverty | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by National Poverty Center (Fall 2005)
    This newsletter article develops a historical context for annual poverty data. The focus is from World War II to the present. The authors emphasize a failure of the economy to explain the similar 2004 poverty rates to those of the late 1960s.
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Fact Sheets | Back to top

Items listed here are shorter documents (less than 3 pages) that provide statistics and/or explanations in a succinct manner.

  • Parents’ Low Education Leads to Low Income, Despite Full-Time Employment | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (November 2005)
    This fact sheet reveals the effect on decreasing children’s poverty rates as parents, even those working full time, increase their own education level. Implications for policy are explicitly noted.
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  • Most Low-Income Parents are Employed | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (November 2007)
    This sheet shows that most children in low-income families have parents employed full-time and year round, that many low-income parents are unable to find full-time, year-round work, and the concentration of low-income workers in the service industry.
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  • Low-Income Children in the United States | PDF PDF (56 p.)
    by National Center for Children in Poverty (September 2006)
    This annual report gives a statistical overview of numbers and percentages of children living in low-income and poor families. Highlighted demographics include age of children, race and ethnicity, and common misconceptions.
    + View Summary
  • State of Working America 2004-2005: Poverty | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Economic Policy Institute (February 2005)
    This fact sheet highlights poverty data as of 2003 and includes poverty growth over time, composition of poverty populations, and poverty and inequality. The official measurement of poverty is widely noted as out of date in terms of income/needs.
    + View Summary

Measuring Poverty & Self-Sufficiency | Back to top

Items listed here include reports and analyses about methods of determining poverty levels, self-sufficiency, and the poor and low-income population in the U.S. Low-income is described by some sources as double or 200% of the federal poverty level and is meant to describe a living situation where a family is barely able to make ends meet, facing material hardships and financial pressures similar to those officially counted as poor. – Low Income Children in the United States, NCCP, (May 2004).

  • Setting the Standard for American Working Families: A Report on the Impact of the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Project Nationwide | PDF PDF (60 p.)
    by Wider Opportunities for Women (2003)
    This report profiles the work of state FESS projects in 34 states and the District of Columbia. It also describes the “Self-Sufficiency Standard” – an income measurement of what a particular family needs to earn in order to meet basic needs.
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  • The Misleading Way We Count the Poor: Alternatives to Our Antiquated Poverty Measure Should Consider Assets | PDF PDF (5 p.)
    by R. Cramer, New America Foundation (September 2003)
    This brief makes the case for including asset measurement in the poverty measure and describes some methods for doing so. The official income-based poverty measure is explained and critiqued. Historical development is included.
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Media Messaging | Back to top

Items listed here concentrate on working with the media and influencing public opinion regarding low-wage work.

  • For an Economy that Works for All: A tool kit for advocates for low-wage workers | HTML HTML (80 p.)
    by Communication Consortium Media Center (2005)
    This tool kit has data on low-wage workers, fact sheets on work and child poverty, reports on public perceptions of poor people and the economy, suggested messages, descriptions of framing, and a guide for journalists on how to talk about low-wage work.
    + View Summary

Poverty Guidelines | Back to top

The poverty guidelines are issued annually, usually in February, by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services and are used to determine eligibility for various social services programs.

  • The 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines | HTML HTML (3 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2009)
    This document provides the 2009 poverty guideline amounts and also describes what the guidelines are, how they are used, and how they are similar and different to the poverty threshold. Links to background information are provided.
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  • Frequently Asked Questions Related to the Poverty Guidelines and Poverty | HTML HTML (8 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
    This document is an excellent pathfinder and primer on the federal government’s poverty guidelines.
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Acronym & Abbreviation Key | Back to top

This is a list of organizational, legislative, and trade-related acronyms and terms contained in the annotated entries of this special poverty collection.

  • BCSDV – Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence
  • FPL – Federal Poverty Level
  • FESS – Family Economic Self Sufficiency
  • NCCP – National Center for Children in Poverty