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Home / Special Collections / Trauma-Informed Domestic Violence Services: Building Program Capacity

Special Collection: Trauma-Informed Domestic Violence Services: Building Program Capacity (Part 2 of 3)

This is PART 2 of a 3-part collection that also includes Understanding the Framework and Approach (PART 1 of 3) and Developing Collaborations and Increasing Access (PART 3 of 3). PART 2 provides practical tools and resources on building capacity to implement trauma-informed programs.

Table of Contents:




This Special Collection was developed by the National Center
on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health
(NCDVTMH) in partnership with the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. Contact NCDVTMH for specialized technical assistance and training on this and related topics.

As advocates, we are and should be continually engaged in the process of developing and improving our programs and services to ensure that they remain true to our mission, are evidence-informed and culturally relevant, and address the self-identified needs and experiences of survivors. To truly embrace a trauma-informed approach, we must be open to examining the infrastructure of our organizations and repositioning the "blocks" to build a healthy foundation that moves the work forward.

Introduction | Back to top

Building on over 20 years of work in this area, the National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health (NCDVTMH) has put into practice a framework that integrates a trauma-informed approach with a DV victim advocacy lens. The term trauma-informed is used to describe organizations and practices that incorporate an understanding of the pervasiveness and impact of trauma and that are designed to reduce retraumatization, support healing and resilience and address the root causes of abuse and violence. The resources compiled in these collections reflect this integrated perspective (NCDVTMH 2013 adapted from Harris and Fallot 2001).

Resources on providing trauma-informed services and advocacy that have been developed by NCDVTMH specifically for DV settings are listed first. Also included throughout this Special Collection are resources that have been developed for mental health or substance abuse settings that can also be useful to DV victim advocates.

The goals of this Special Collection series are to provide:

  • Basic information about the different ways in which trauma can affect individuals and to highlight current research on effective ways to respond to trauma;
  • Practical guidance on developing trauma-informed DV programs and services; and
  • Resources that will help support collaboration between DV programs, and mental health, substance abuse, and other social services agencies and that will increase awareness about trauma treatment in the context of DV.

A Note About Gender: Intimate partner violence perpetrated by men against their female partners is epidemic. At the same time, whatever a person’s gender or their partner’s gender, they may experience intimate partner violence, and gendered language can minimize the experiences of many survivors. We have attempted to use language in this Special Collection that reflects our analysis of gender oppression and other forms of oppression, as well as our commitment to serving all survivors of domestic violence.

The mission of the National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health is to develop and promote accessible, culturally relevant, and trauma-informed responses to domestic violence and other lifetime trauma so that survivors and their children can access the resources that are essential to their safety and well-being. NCDVTMH provides training, support, and consultation to advocates, mental health and substance abuse providers, legal professionals, and policymakers as they work to improve agency and systems-level responses to survivors and their children.

Organizational Assessment and Change | Back to top

Making the transition to becoming a trauma-informed organization and providing trauma-informed services involves a change in the way we understand our work, structure our organizations, and we interact with survivors. For some organizations, this will involve a fundamental shift in approach; for others it will mean enhancing existing practice to attend to the particular ways that trauma can affect us as survivors, providers, and organizations.
Although a trauma-informed approach is consistent with principles of DV advocacy, it is more than just “good advocacy practice.” It requires a specific awareness of how trauma can affect our own responses and interactions with others. It also requires the intentional development of supports for ongoing reflection, learning, skill development and self-care to ensure that our interactions are consistent with our principles and to help sustain us in the work.

A trauma-informed approach also takes into account that the environment in which services are delivered can affect how services are received. This means creating a physical and sensory environment that is welcoming, inclusive, and healing; a programmatic environment that is responsive to both individual and collective needs; a cultural environment that is attuned to the people being served; and a relational environment that is caring, respectful, empowering, and emotionally and physically safe.

Becoming trauma-informed is at heart a relational process and one that is continually evolving. It requires the commitment of every member of the organization. It means being willing to honestly assess existing policies and practices and to keep supporting each other as we continue to grow and learn.

The tools in this section provide practical guidance to facilitate this process. Some resources in this section were designed specifically for DV settings or for DV and mental health organizations that are forming collaborations. Others were designed for use in different service settings but can be easily adapted for DV programs.

Domestic violence specific resources

Building Dignity: Design Strategies for Domestic Violence Shelter, A Project of the Washington Coalition Against Domestic Violence
This website extends the work of the WSCADV on shelter rules and parenting in shelter by exploring design strategies for domestic violence victim emergency housing. Thoughtful design dignifies survivors by meeting their needs for self-determination, security, and connection, while supporting parenting and minimizing the need for rules. The ideas on the website reflect a commitment to creating welcoming, accessible environments that help to empower survivors and their children, and have their origins in conversations with shelter residents and advocates. The site is designed to be useful to advocates, executive directors, architects and designers.

  • Creating Trauma-Informed Services Tipsheet Series | HTML HTML
    by the National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health (2012)
    These tipsheets provide practical advice on creating trauma-informed services in domestic violence programs and working with survivors who are experiencing trauma symptoms and/or mental health conditions.
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  • Creating Accessible, Culturally Relevant, Domestic Violence­ and Trauma­Informed Agencies: A Self­Reflection Tool | PDF PDF (23 p.)
    by the Accessing Safety and Recovery Initiative of the National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health (2012)
    This tool uses questions and discussion prompts to guide agencies through a self-reflective process, beginning with imagining how accessible, culturally relevant, and trauma-informed (ACDVTI) work might be carried out in their organization, and then thinking through the first steps and additional resources that will be needed for creating change.
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  • Trauma-Informed Care: Best Practices and Protocols for Ohio’s Domestic Violence Programs | PDF PDF (143 p.)
    by Sonia D. Ferencik and Rachel Ramirez-Hammond for the Ohio Domestic Violence Network (2011)
    This manual includes information on understanding trauma, responding to trauma survivors, trauma-informed best practices, trauma-informed protocols (for hotline calls, intakes, support groups, exit interviews, safety planning and parenting), and vicarious trauma.
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This video presentation by Rachel Ramirez from the Ohio Domestic Violence Network reviews concepts presented in the document above, Trauma-Informed Care: Best Practices and Protocols for Ohio’s Domestic Violence Programs.

Resources on revising shelter rules

Abusers often attempt to impose rules on their partners. The loss of autonomy experienced by many survivors at the hands of their abusers can be one of the most devastating effects of domestic violence. Shelters that rely extensively on rules and echo the abuser’s rigid reliance on rules may retraumatize survivors rather than support them. Shifting away from a rule-based approach to serving survivors and their children is a key step in becoming trauma-informed. The resources below, developed by the Washington State Coalition against Domestic Violence and the Missouri Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence, are designed to help shelters create environments where survivors can reclaim their autonomy and feel secure without excessive rules and punitive systems.

  • Online Shelter Rules Advocacy Toolkit | HTML HTML
    by the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence (2012)
    We know that abusers often impose many rules on their partners, and that a primary harm of domestic violence is being robbed of one’s autonomy. This advocacy toolkit explores ways to create environments where survivors can reclaim their autonomy, and feel secure without excessive rules and punitive systems that echo the abuser's rules.
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  • Shelter Support Project | HTML HTML
    by the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
    The Shelter Support Project is a supportive resource for people making day-to-day decisions about the management and operation of domestic violence shelter programs. Shelter management resources including articles and model protocols are provided.
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  • How the Earth Didn’t Fly Into the Sun: Missouri’s Project to Reduce Rules in Domestic Violence Shelters | PDF PDF (60 p.)
    by the Missouri Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence (MCADSV)
    This first-hand account of Missouri’s project to reduce rules in domestic violence shelters offers practical tips for other state coalitions, programs, and individual advocates interested in this approach.
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Resources that are not specific to DV settings

Creating Cultures of Trauma-Informed Care (CCTIC)
The Creating Cultures of Trauma-Informed Care (CCTIC) model engages the system or organization in a culture change, emphasizing core values of safety, trustworthiness, choice, collaboration, and empowerment in program activities, physical settings, and relationships. Implementing cultural shifts of this scope requires the full participation of administrators; supervisory, direct service, and support staff; and consumers. CCTIC uses a structured model for programs to review and set priorities for change; a checklist is used by programs as part of an initial review and as a tool for monitoring progress; and an implementation form guides changes. While designed initially for mental health settings, these tools can be adapted for DV agencies as well. Contact Community Connections to discuss consultation and materials.
  • Trauma-Informed Organizational Toolkit for Homeless Services | PDF PDF (96 p.)
    by Guarino, K., Soares, P., Konnath, K., Clervil, R., and Bassuk, E for the National Center on Family Homelessness (2009)
    The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families experiencing homelessness is extraordinarily high. This comprehensive toolkit was developed for use by homeless shelters and housing providers, although the material can be highly useful for domestic violence advocates.
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  • A Long Journey Home: A Guide for Creating Trauma-Informed Services for Mothers and Children Experiencing Homelessness | PDF PDF (58 p.)
    by Laura Prescott, Phoebe Soares, Kristina Konnath, and Ellen Bassuk for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2008)
    This manual is intended to serve as a guide to agencies looking for practical ideas about how to create trauma-informed environments. It is best viewed as a template and should be supplemented by your knowledge and expertise regarding the most effective adaptations for working with families in your own program.
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  • Gender-Responsive Program Assessment | PDF PDF (19 p.)
    by Stephanie S. Covington and Barbara E. Bloom for The Center for Gender and Justice (2008)
    Being gender-responsive means creating an environment through site selection, staff selection, program development, content, and material that reflects an understanding of the lives of women and girls and responds to their strengths and challenges. This assessment provides a tool to evaluate the gender responsiveness of programs.
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  • Creating Cultures of Trauma-Informed Care (CCTIC): A Self-Assessment and Planning Protocol | PDF PDF (18 p.)
    by Roger D. Fallot and Maxine Harris for Community Connections (July 2009)
    This Self-Assessment and Planning Protocol and its accompanying CCTIC Program Self-Assessment Scale provide consistent guidelines for agencies or programs interested in facilitating trauma-informed modifications in their service systems.
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  • Trauma-Responsive System Implementation Advisor (TreSIA) | HTML HTML
    by EPower & Associates (2011)
    This toolkit includes resources on trauma-informed care, organizational assessment, and organizational change management. Resources guide the user through considerations for leadership and culture, trauma-informed care structure, policies and processes, employee skills and tools and resources.
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  • The Sanctuary Model of Trauma-Informed Organizational Change | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by Sandra L. Bloom and Sarah Yanos Sreedhar for Reclaiming Children and Youth (Fall 2008)
    This article describes the Sanctuary Model of trauma-informed organizational change. The method builds on the S.E.L.F. (Safety, Emotions, Loss and Future) psychoeducational group curriculum dealing with four domains of life disruption than can occur with trauma.
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Training Curricula and Materials | Back to top

This section includes training materials that cover important foundational concepts to help readers think through key elements of providing trauma-informed services. Learning basic information about the ways that the mind and body respond to stress and trauma can change how we understand our own feelings and behavior, as well as those of others. It is also important to make sure that we are putting what we know about trauma and the principles of trauma-informed care into practice—and while doing trauma-informed work looks different in different contexts, there are some common elements.

The materials included here contain background information as well as practical tips about what it looks like to do trauma-informed work. For example, doing trauma-informed work at a DV program includes ensuring everyone feels welcomed and included, providing survivors with information about trauma in a thoughtful way that normalizes their experiences, emphasizing emotional safety as much as physical safety, and providing a non-judgmental environment in which survivors can safely discuss their mental health and substance abuse-related needs and receive culturally relevant support, resources, and referrals. The resources in this section will help you to think through both the principles and practical side of doing trauma-informed work.

Materials in this section include fact sheets and informational documents, training curricula and materials, links to online courses, training exercises like role-plays, and discussion questions. Materials that can be helpful in developing training programs are also included. Some of these materials have been designed specifically for DV programs and services, while others are not specific to DV but contain information that can be useful to DV victim advocates.

  • Practical Tools for Domestic Violence Advocates | HTML HTML
    by The National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health (2012)
    These fact sheets provide information and practical tips for domestic violence victim advocates on working with survivors who are experiencing trauma symptoms and/or mental health conditions.
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  • Conversation Guide Series | HTML HTML
    by The National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health (2012)
    The Conversation Guide Series provides guidance to domestic violence programs working to build their own capacity to provide accessible, culturally relevant, and trauma-informed services. Each guide in the series provides instructions on how to lead discussions and activities with program staff.
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  • Access to Advocacy: Serving Women with Psychiatric Disabilities in Domestic Violence Settings - Participant Guide | PDF PDF (204 p.)
    by the Domestic Violence & Mental Health Policy Initiative; National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health (2007)
    This curriculum contains NCDVTMH’s core training materials related to trauma and psychiatric disability. Topics covered include the impact of trauma across the lifespan; recommendations for working with survivors experiencing the traumatic effects of abuse, mental health conditions, and/or psychiatric disability; recommendations for collaboration; developing inclusive and trauma-informed services; peer support principles; and legal issues.
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  • Real Tools: Responding to Multi-Abuse Trauma - A Tool Kit to Help Advocates and Community Partners Better Serve People with Multiple Issues | PDF PDF (353 p.)
    by Debi S. Edmund and Patricia J. Bland for the Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (2011)
    This toolkit focuses on survivors of multi-abuse trauma — those who are affected by multiple issues that negatively affect safety, health, or well-being. A primary focus of the toolkit is on how many survivors of domestic violence experience alcohol and drug dependence, complex trauma, homelessness, and other hardships.
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  • Reducing Barriers to Support for Women Fleeing Violence: A Toolkit for Supporting Women with Varying Levels of Mental Wellness and Substance Use | PDF PDF (203 p.)
    by the BC Society of Transition Houses (2011)
    This manual is designed to assist transitional housing providers and other service providers in providing effective services to women fleeing violence. It draws on the knowledge of women who have experienced violence and those who have supported them.
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  • Webinars & Seminars from the National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health | HTML HTML
    This page provides access to recorded webinars hosted by the National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health on various topics related to trauma, mental health, and domestic violence.
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Secondary Trauma, Reflective Practice & Reflective Leadership | Back to top

As advocates, we spend a lot of time thinking about how oppression and power dynamics operate in the lives of survivors we are working with, and this Special Collection asks us to integrate a trauma-informed lens into our work. But do our agencies themselves embody these values? Applying an empowerment-based and trauma-informed approach to our agency structures means creating nonhierarchical, participatory, and transparent organizational processes, and developing ways of working and supporting our colleagues that are supported by an understanding of trauma.

Creating empowerment-based and trauma-informed agencies and human resources policies is necessary to providing trauma-informed services and advocacy. This includes making sure that human resource functions are trauma-informed. Supervisors, in particular, should be aware of the ways in which trauma can affect relationships at work. DV victim advocates are routinely exposed to secondary traumatic stress (sometimes called vicarious trauma), and many workers in the field have trauma in their own backgrounds.

Self-reflection and self-care thus need to be actively supported. The resources in this section are designed to facilitate a critical reexamination of human resources policies with an eye toward intentionally putting policies in place that fully support staff in doing this work.

Domestic violence specific resources
  • Reflective Leadership as a Strategy for Accountability | PDF PDF (26 p.)
    by Terri Pease for The Voice: The Journal of the Battered Women’s Movement of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (Spring 2009)
    This article discusses accountability in the context of an empowerment model, which recognizes power as a tool of oppression. The article proposes a model of reflective practice and supervision as an alternative to top-down approaches, and gives specific illustrations of the use of reflective techniques in staff supervision.
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  • Guidebook on Vicarious Trauma: Recommended Solutions for Anti-violence Workers | PDF PDF (128 p.)
    by Jan I. Richardson (2001)
    This guidebook attempts to recognize the unique experiences of anti-violence workers in Canada, promoting individual, equity, and organizational supports. This guidebook explores the response to vicarious trauma within certain communities and cultural groups.
    + View Summary
Resources that are not specific to DV settings

The Trauma Stewardship Institute
"Raising awareness and responding to the cumulative toll on those who are exposed to the suffering, hardship, crisis, or trauma of humans, living beings, or the planet itself. " The Trauma Stewardship Institute website provides keynote talks, organizational consulting, workshops and retreats, and disaster response assistance based on the decades of life experience of the Institute’s founder, Laura Van Dernoot Lipsky.
  • ProQOL Assessment Instrument | HTML HTML
    The ProQOL (Professional Quality of Life Elements Theory and Measurement) is the most commonly used measure of the negative and positive effects of helping others who experience suffering and trauma. The ProQOL has sub-scales for compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue.
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  • Using Reflective Supervision to Support Trauma-Informed Systems for Children | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Anje Van Berckelaer for Multiplying Connections (2009)
    This white paper offers a rationale to administrators, program directors, and supervisors in child service agencies for the adoption of reflective supervision as a supervisory approach consistent with trauma-informed approaches.
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  • Secondary Traumatic Stress: A Fact Sheet for Child-Serving Professionals | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network
    This fact sheet provides a concise overview of secondary traumatic stress and its potential impact on child-serving professionals. It also outlines options for assessment, prevention, and interventions relevant to secondary stress, and describes the elements necessary for transforming child-serving organizations and agencies into systems that also support worker resiliency.
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  • Self-Care Assessment Worksheet | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by K.W. Saakvitne and L.A. Pearlman for the Traumatic Stress Institute/Center for Adult & Adolescent Psychotherapy (1996)
    This self-assessment checklist includes sections on physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual, and professional self-care and balance.
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  • The Sanctuary Model: A Restorative Approach for Human Service Organizations | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Laura Mirsky for the International Institute for Restorative Practices (March 2010)
    This article describes Dr. Sandra Bloom’s Sanctuary Model as an operating system that helps human services organizations function in a humane, democratic, and socially responsible manner.
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This video from Care Visions shows how they embraced The Sanctuary Model across their children's services. Their goal was to work with those with complex needs in a way that helps them make sense of their painful past experiences, thus allowing them to lead a full and purposeful life.

Working with Specific Communities | Back to top

Survivors of domestic violence in communities of color as well as other marginalized communities historically have faced numerous barriers when seeking services and support. This section explores some of these barriers, examines the cultural context of domestic violence in specific marginalized communities, and makes recommendations for how to build cultural competency.

Specific communities discussed in this section include African American women, Latinas, refugee and immigrants, individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT), religious and faith-based communities, people with disabilities and people who are D/deaf. Individuals in many of these communities may experience the effects of historical trauma—that is, they may be affected by traumatic events (such as intense discrimination, colonization, and slavery) that happened to the group with which they identify, even if they did not directly experience the event themselves. Historical trauma, a concept that is relevant to many communities, is explored in this section.

Harvard Program in Refugee Trauma
The Harvard Program in Refugee Trauma is located at the Harvard School of Public Health. It is a multi-disciplinary program that has been working in the field of health and mental health care for traumatized refugees and civilians in areas of conflict/post-conflict and natural disasters for over two decades. The website contains information about refugee trauma, descriptions of training programs, screening tools and manuals available for purchase, and materials for working with refugee trauma survivors.
  • Safety and Services: Women of color speak about their communities | PDF PDF (28 p.)
    by Jacquelyn Boggess and Jill Groblewski for the Center for Family Policy and Practice (October 2011)
    The project upon which this report is based invited African American women to express their views on services for victims and survivors of domestic violence, in particular the needs of survivors in low-income communities.
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  • Using Trauma-Informed AOD Treatment Practices to Improve Outcomes for African American Survivors of Domestic Violence | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Gabriella Grant for Ontrack Communications (2008)
    This article recommends numerous trauma-informed practices to be used by programs specifically working with women who have experienced trauma. It also recommends a simple agency assessment to identify specific strengths and weaknesses in terms of being able to effectively address trauma.
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  • On the Road to Social Transformation: Utilizing Cultural and Community Strengths to End Domestic Violence | PDF PDF (85 p.)
    by Elsa A. Rios for the National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence/Alianza Latina Nacional Para Erradicar la Violencia Doméstica
    This document is meant to inspire program innovation and a deeper commitment by service providers, policy makers and funders to building culturally proficient organizations capable of delivering quality services to diverse communities.
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  • A Practical Guide for Creating Trauma-Informed Disability, Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Organizations | PDF PDF (54 p.)
    by Disability Rights Wisconsin, Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Wisconsin Coalition Against Sexual Assault (December 2011)
    This guidebook focuses on the impact of domestic violence, sexual assault, and other forms of trauma on people with disabilities. It describes four conditions for a trauma-informed organization and provides tips on trauma-informed practices, creating organizational change, and providing universal safeguards.
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  • Intimate Partner Violence and Barriers to Mental Healthcare for Ethnically Diverse Populations of Women | HTML HTML (16 p.)
    by Michael Rodríguez, Jeanette M. Valentine, John B. Son, and Marjani Muhammad for Trauma Violence Abuse, 10(4) (October 2009)
    Ethnically diverse populations of women, particularly survivors of intimate partner violence, experience many barriers to mental health care. Attention to the barriers to mental health care for ethnically diverse survivors of IPV can help inform the development of more effective strategies for health care practice and policy.
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  • Transcending Violence: Emerging Models for Trauma Healing in Refugee Communities | PDF PDF (37 p.)
    by Andrea Blanch for SAMHSA’s National Center on Trauma-Informed Care (May 2008)
    This monograph is an introduction and overview of the issues involved in providing mental health trauma services for refugees in the United States. It is intended primarily for people who work in or care about the public mental health system.
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  • Somewhere to Turn: Making Domestic Violence Services Accessible to Battered Immigrant Women, Chapter 1: Overview of Domestic Violence and Battered Immigrant Issues | PDF PDF (21 p.)
    by Leslye E. Orloff and Rachael Little, AYUDA, Inc. (May 1999)
    This chapter provides information about domestic violence in immigrant communities, including the power and control dynamics and the barriers faced by immigrant women in accessing services for domestic violence.
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  • Intimate Partner Violence in Immigrant and Refugee Communities: Challenges, Promising Practices and Recommendations | PDF PDF (66 p.)
    by the Family Violence Prevention Fund for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (March 2009)
    This report offers information on the challenges, prevention and treatment of IPV in immigrant and refugee communities. It includes recommendations and summaries for future work and funding efforts.
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  • Culturally Competent Service Provision to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Survivors of Sexual Violence | PDF PDF (19 p.)
    by Sabrina Gentlewarrior with contributions from Kim Fountain (September 2009)
    This Applied Research paper provides a review of the research focusing on LGBT survivors of sexual trauma and offers recommendations for culturally competent service provision to LGBT clients.
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  • Why It Matters: Rethinking Victim Assistance for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Victims of Hate Violence and Intimate Partner Violence | PDF PDF (15 p.)
    by The National Center for Victims of Crime and the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (March 2010)
    This report describes widespread gaps in victim services for LGBT victims of crime and recommends steps to improve both the services and their accessibility.
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  • A Conceptual Model of Historical Trauma: Implications for Public Health Practice and Research | PDF PDF (15 p.)
    by Michelle Sotero for the Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice (Fall 2006)
    This article offers an analysis of the theoretical framework of historical trauma theory and provides a general review of the literature. A conceptual model is introduced illustrating how historical trauma might play a role in disease prevalence and health disparities.
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  • A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice | PDF PDF (11 p.)
    by Joseph P. Gone for the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (2009)
    This article points out that one important way for psychologists to bridge evidence-based and culturally sensitive treatment paradigms is to partner with Indigenous programs in the exploration of locally determined therapeutic outcomes for existing culturally sensitive interventions that are maximally responsive to community needs and interests.
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  • A Commentary on Religious Issues in Family Violence | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Rev. Marie M. Fortune for the Center for the Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence (1991)
    This commentary addresses some of the common religious concerns raised by people dealing with family violence (including child sexual abuse and incest) and illustrates ways of converting potential religious roadblocks into valuable resources.
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