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Special Collection: Ending Violence Against Women Globally: International policies, programs, and approaches

Table of Contents:


This collection was developed by Sheetal Rana of the Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse.

Introduction | Back to top

This special collection brings together selected documents that focus on international policies, programs, and approaches to prevent and intervene in violence against women (VAW). The goal is to facilitate learning about different polices, programs, and approaches that have been developed, adopted, and adapted internationally to address VAW in diverse cultural and socio-economic situations. The review of documents included in this special collection suggests the following: First, there are limited multi-country studies on VAW. Second, human rights declarations and conventions set international legal standards for policy and program responses to VAW. Third, international initiatives have focused on VAW prevention by addressing gender inequalities in several development sectors, particularly justice, health, and education. Fourth, many approaches to prevent and intervene in VAW use social-ecological framework and engage community members, including men. Fifth, little is known about programs that have proven effective in ending VAW across countries because there is limited rigorous evaluation of programs that address VAW.

The special collection is organized into six sections, and the documents included cover multi-country projects, policies, and studies. Important to note here is that this special collection is not a comprehensive listing of all documents available; rather, it includes selected documents that are available online free of charge. Studies on VAW in the U.S. are not included in this special collection, but can be found elsewhere on VAWnet.

On August 10, 2012, President Obama issued an Executive Order on Preventing and Responding to Violence Against Women and Girls Globally to further enhance the Administration's efforts to advance the rights and status of women and girls, to promote gender equality in U.S. foreign policy, and to bring about a world in which all individuals can pursue their aspirations without the threat of violence. The order creates an interagency working group co-chaired by the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and directs departments and agencies to implement the new United States Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally (August 2012).

Studies and reports on violence against women | Back to top

Violence Against Women (VAW) is a global problem affecting many women and girls worldwide. VAW is often culture and context specific and has many individual and societal implications. Yet, there are similarities in the dynamics of VAW across all cultures. The documents included in this section highlight these differences and similarities and present information about the global prevalence and forms of VAW, as well as its costs and consequences. Here the documents are arranged by studies and reports that are global in nature and those that have a regional focus. Regional studies and reports were available for only some regions. For example, studies from Africa non-conflict regions were not available. Also included here are studies and reports of VAW in conflict-affected areas, although it is important to note that VAW that are unrelated to conflict also exists in these areas and must not be overlooked.

Global scope
  • Violence Against Women and Girls in the Post-2015 Framework: Why and How | PDF PDF (32 p.)
    by zohra moosa for ActionAid UK (October 2012)
    This paper discusses the ways that gender-based violence against women and girls (VAWG) undermines global development, peace, human rights and social justice as a root cause of inequality, and outlines why a new post-2015 international framework should tackle it.
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  • WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses | HTML HTML
    by Claudia Garc'a-Moreno, Henrica A.F.M. Jansen, Mary Ellsberg, Lori Heise and Charlotte Watts, World Health Organization (2005)
    "This report presents initial results of a cross-section study carried out in ten countries. Findings document the prevalence of intimate partner violence and its association with women's physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health."
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  • Global Report on Trafficking in Persons | PDF PDF (292 p.)
    by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2009)
    Based on data gathered from 155 countries, this report offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking.
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  • Global Perspectives on Sexual Violence: Findings from the World Report on Violence and Health | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center (2004)
    This report seeks to offer a glimpse of the 'serious global public health problem' that is sexual violence as well as promising practices and opportunities for those working to end sexual violence.
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  • Risk Factors and Social Dynamics Underpinning Rape and Critique of Best Practice in Rape Prevention Policy Internationally | PDF PDF (28 p.)
    by Lizle Loots, Liz Dartnall and Rachel Jewkes for the Sexual Violence Research Initiative (2011)
    This review is one of the first undertaken on the availability of policies addressing the prevention of sexual violence globally. It involves an analysis of literature on risk factors and social dynamics underpinning rape and critique of best practice in rape prevention policy internationally.
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  • Fact Sheet: How widespread is Violence Against Women? | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by the United Nations Department of Public Information (February 2008)
    This fact sheet provides an overview of the prevalence and forms of violence against women worldwide, the costs and consequences of VAW, and examples from many countries of legislative provisions to address VAW.
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  • Intimate Partner Violence: High Costs to Households and Communities | PDF PDF (17 p.)
    by Nata Duvvury, Aslihan Kes, Swati Chakraborty, Noni Milici, Sarah Ssewanyana, Frederick Mugisha, Winnie Nabiddo, M.A. Mannan, Selim Raihan, Simeen Mahmud, and Rahma Bourqia, Kamal Mellakh, Ibenrissoul Abdelmajid, Mhammed Abderebbi, Rachida Nafaa, and Jamila Be for the International Center for Research on Women and United Nations Population Fund (2009)
    This three-country study in Bangladesh, Morocco, and Uganda estimated the economic costs of intimate partner violence at the household and community levels.
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  • Evolving Men: Initial Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey | PDF PDF (102 p.)
    by Gary Barker, Manuel Contreras, Brian Heilman, Ajay Singh, Ravi Verma, and Marcos Nascimento for the International Center for Research on Women and Instituto Promundo (January 2011)
    This report presents findings from a six-country study on men's attitudes and practices as well as women's opinions and reports of men's practices. These practices included health practices, parenting, relationship dynamics, sexual behavior, and use of violence.
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Focus on Asia
  • Violence Against Women in Melanesia and East Timor: Building on Global and Regional Promising Approaches | PDF PDF (220 p.)
    by the Commonwealth of Australia (2008)
    This study describes what is known about VAW in Melanesia and East Timor and assesses the effectiveness of efforts made in this region, particularly in increasing access to justice, services to survivors, and promising practices.
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  • Towards Ending Violence Against Women in South Asia | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Mona Mehta for Oxfam International (August 2004)
    This paper describes VAW in South Asian context. It discusses the policy initiatives made internationally and how these policies have yielded little actions in this region. Core challenges in addressing VAW in this region are discussed and suggestions are offered for way ahead.
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  • Violence Against Women in South Asia: A Regional Analysis | PDF PDF (88 p.)
    by the United Nations Population Fund Bangladesh and Country Technical Services Team for South and West Asia, Kathmandu (2003)
    In this document are collection of papers related to VAW in South Asia. The papers provides information about the causes of VAW and government and civil society responses to address VAW.
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Focus on Europe
  • PROTECT: Identifying and Protecting High Risk Victims of Gender Based Violence - an Overview | PDF PDF (92 p.)
    by Ute Rösemann, Branislava Marvanová Vargová, and Regina Webhofer for WAVE - Women Against Violence Europe (2010)
    This report summarizes project PROTECT which aims at contributing to the prevention and reduction of the most serious forms of gender-based violence against girls, young women and their children, such as grievous bodily harm, homicide and attempted homicide, including so-called honour crimes and killings.
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  • Taking Stock: A review of the existing research on trafficking for sexual exploitation | PDF PDF (88 p.)
    by Guri Tyldum, Marianne Tveit, and Anette Brunovskis, Fafo (2005)
    This document reviews the current knowledge on trafficking for sexual exploitation to and within Europe, giving an overview of and insight into the main trends in research in this field.
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Focus on Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Sexual violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Desk Review | PDF PDF (92 p.)
    by Juan Manuel Contreras with contributions from Sarah Bott, Elizabeth Dartnall, Alessandra Guedes, Kanako Ishida, and Abbie Fields for the Sexual Violence Research Initiative (March 2010)
    This document reviews over 200 published and unpublished documents to explore the magnitude, patterns, and risk factors associated with sexual violence. Also included in this review are legal and policy frameworks, women's responses to sexual violence, access to services and service response, promising interventions, research gaps, and priorities for future research.
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  • A Review of Spanish-Language Literature from Latin America on Sex Trafficking | PDF PDF ( p.)
    by Sheldon X. Zhang for the National Institute of Justice (December 2010)
    This technical report provides a Spanish-language literature review of resources on sex trafficking from Latin America.
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Focus on conflict-affected areas
  • Prosecuting Conflict-Related Sexual Violence at the International Criminal Court | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Ashley Dallman for SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (May 2009)
    This document analyzes the effectiveness of the Internal Criminal Court (ICC) in achieving justice for sexual violence survivors in conflicted-affected areas and the role of ICC in preventing conflict-related sexual violence.
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  • Conflict-related sexual violence: Report of the Secretary-General | PDF PDF (32 p.)
    by the UN Secretary General (January 2012)
    This report offers information on progress made in the implementation of monitoring, analysis, and reporting arrangements and the placement of women's protection advisers.
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International laws and policies to address violence against women | Back to top

This section lists human rights conventions and declarations that obligate countries that have ratified these conventions to treat violence against women as a human rights violation and to incorporate international standards into their domestic legislations. Also included in this section are strategy frameworks and policy documents that address VAW.

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1948)
    Adopted in 1948 by 58 member states of the United Nations, UDHR defines human rights as fundamental to all human beings and requires governments to take actions to protect human rights of all beings.
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  • Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women | HTML HTML (12 p.)
    from the United Nations Office for the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1979)
    Adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, CEDAW has been ratified by 187 countries. CEDAW does not explicitly mention VAW, but it defines what constitutes discrimination against women, establishes norms and standards, and obligates states that have ratified the convention to end discrimination against women and girls.
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  • UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women | HTML HTML
    from the United Nations (December 20, 1993)
    Adopted in 1993 by the UN General Assembly, this declaration defines violence against women. As a consequence of the declaration, the Commission on Human Rights adopted Resolution 1994/45 that appointed a Special Rapporteur on violence against women.
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  • Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences | HTML HTML
    from the United Nations Office on the High Commissioner for Human Rights
    The Special Rapporteur has four mandates, which includes seeking information on violence against women, and recommending measures, ways, and means to eliminate VAW.
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  • International Framework for Action to Prevent Trafficking in Persons Protocol | PDF PDF (70 p.)
    from the United Nations (2009)
    This framework is a technical assistant tools designed to support UN member states to effectively implement the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, which is a protocol that obligates its ratifying states to prevent and combat trafficking in persons.
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  • Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings and its Explanatory Report | PDF PDF ( p.)
    (CETS No. 197), Council of Europe (2005)
    Council of the European Convention provides definitions and information about prevention and protection measures, victims rights, investigation and prosecution, and other international instruments.
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  • Domestic violence legislation and its implementation: An analysis for ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN) countries based on international standards and good practices | PDF PDF (74 p.)
    by the Lawyers Collective Women's Rights Initiative, India for the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) (2011)
    This document analyzes domestic violence legislation in Association of Southeastern Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries with reference to international standards, specifically the CEDAW and UDHR.
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  • UNFPA Strategy and Framework of Action to Addressing Gender Based Violence 2008-2011 | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by the Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2009)
    This framework identifies eight priority areas in which UNFPA should strategically direct programming to address gender based violence.
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  • International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues | PDF PDF ( p.)
    by Luisa Blanchfield, Rhoda Margesson, Tiaji Salaam-Blyther, Nina M. Serafino, and Liana Sun Wyler for the Congressional Research Service Report for Congress (July 2011)
    This report provides examples of completed and ongoing U.S. government programs to reduce or eliminate international violence against women and outlines possible policy considerations for the 112th Congress.
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Programs, approaches, and resources to prevent and intervene in violence against women | Back to top

This section includes an array of programs and approaches implemented in different parts of the world to address VAW. These include programs that address structural gender inequality and discrimination using development sectors such as justice, health, and education, as well as approaches to VAW prevention and intervention by mobilizing communities and specifically engaging men.

Addressing VAW and gender inequality through justice, health, education, and other development sectors
  • Ending violence against women: From words to action | PDF PDF (210 p.)
    by the United Nations (2006)
    The document highlights and synthesizes issues and concerns related to addressing VAW globally. Promising practices from different countries to address VAW in areas of law, service provision, and prevention are included. The document concludes with recommendations for action in seven key strategic areas.
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  • Preventing and Responding to Violence against women in Middle-and Low-Income Countries: A Global Review and Analysis | PDF PDF (61 p.)
    by Sarah Bott, Andrew Morrison, and Mary Ellsberg, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper (July 2005)
    This document reviews promising initiatives to prevent and respond to VAW globally with a specific focus on physical intimate partner violence and sexual violence by any perpetrator.
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  • Addressing Violence Against Women in Middle and Low-Income Countries: A Multi-Sectoral Approach | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by the Gender and Development Group, World Bank
    This document briefly discusses the scope, magnitude, consequences, and causes of VAW, and highlights the importance of coordination between sector-specific approaches, civil society initiatives, and government institutions to address VAW.
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  • Addressing violence against women and achieving the Millennium Development Goals | PDF PDF (51 p.)
    by the World Health Organization (2005)
    This document notes the connection between achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and preventing violence against women, and presents recommendations for integrating initiatives to address VAW into MDG strategies.
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  • Violence Prevention: The Evidence - Promoting gender equality to prevent violence against women | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by the World Health Organization (2009)
    This document reviews promising initiatives to promote gender equality and the effectiveness of such approaches in reducing VAW. These include school-based programs, community interventions such as microfinance, public awareness campaigns, and initiatives that engage men.
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  • Addressing violence against women in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A critical review of interventions | PDF PDF (70 p.)
    by Andrew Morrison, Mary Ellsberg, and Sarah Bott for the World Bank and PATH (October 2004)
    This document presents an overview of gender-based violence in Latin America and examines good practice interventions to prevent such violence in four sectors: justice, health, education, and multi-sectoral approaches.
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  • Addressing violence against women within the education sector | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by the World Bank
    This document underscores the role of educational reforms in preventing violence against women and presents promising practices in educational reforms and VAW prevention.
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  • Improving the Health Sector Response to Gender Based Violence: A Resource Manual for Health Care Professionals in Developing Countries | PDF PDF (248 p.)
    by Sarah Bott, Alessandra Guedes, Maria Cecilia Claramunt, and Ana Guezmes for the International Planned Parenthood Federation (2010)
    This manual presents lessons learned from a regional initiative to increase organizational capacity to respond to gender-based violence. The manual offers tools for responding to violence against women and discusses challenges and debates about how health sector should respond to VAW in developing countries.
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  • Addressing violence against women and HIV/AIDS: What works? | PDF PDF (53 p.)
    by the World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) (2010)
    This report summarizes the outcomes from a meeting aimed to make policy and programmatic recommendations for national and international HIV/AIDS programs and develop an agenda for future program development, evaluation and research efforts.
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  • Violence Prevention: The Evidence - Reducing violence through victim identification, care and support programs | PDF PDF (17 p.)
    by the World Health Organization (2009)
    This document presents a global review of interventions that identify and respond to victims of interpersonal violence, including screening tools, education programs, mandatory reporting systems, and multi-agency risk assessments.
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Engaging men in VAW prevention and intervention
  • Engaging Men and Boys in Changing Gender-Based Inequity in Health: Evidence from Programme Interventions | PDF PDF (76 p.)
    by Gary Barker, Christine Ricardo, & Marcos Nascimento for the World Health Organization (2007)
    This review assesses the effectiveness of programmes seeking to engage men and boys in achieving gender equality and equity in health.
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  • Engaging Boys and Men in Gender Transformation: The Group Education Manual | PDF PDF (358 p.)
    by the ACQUIRE Project (2008)
    This 11-chapter manual will offer trainers an array of participatory experiential exercises to reach men (and their partners), exploring gender socialization and its impact on HIV prevention and care.
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  • Elimination of Violence Against Women in Partnership with Men | PDF PDF (62 p.)
    by United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) (2003)
    This document has two papers and an inventory of organizations and initiatives that engage men in VAW prevention. These resources were prepared for a sub-regional training workshop.
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  • Issue Brief: Engaging Men and Boys to Reduce and Prevent Gender-Based Violence | PDF PDF (43 p.)
    by Todd Minerson, Humberto Carolo, Tuval Dinner, and Clay Jones of The White Ribbon Campaign - Canada for Status of Women Canada (April 2011)
    The paper examines root causes of gender-based violence, including socialization of men, power and patriarchy, masculinities, and gender inequality. Also included are promising strategies, best practices, and effective frameworks for engaging men and boys in the effort to reduce and prevent gender-based violence with a focus on Canada.
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  • Engaging Boys and Young Men in the Prevention of Sexual Violence: A Systematic and Global Review of Evaluated Interventions | PDF PDF (72 p.)
    by Christine Ricardo, Marci Eads and Gary Barker for the Sexual Violence Research Initiative (2011)
    This review of existing research examines the effectiveness of interventions for preventing boys' and young men's use of sexual violence. Indicators examined included increase in gender-equitable attitudes, bystander intentions, and other attitudes and behaviors.
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Mobilizing community members in VAW prevention and intervention
  • SASA! An Activist Kit for Preventing Violence against Women and HIV | HTML HTML
    by Raising Voices (2009)
    This toolkit offers a comprehensive, user-friendly program tool for organizations interested in mobilizing communities to prevent violence against women and HIV infection. Included in this toolkit are practical resources, activities, and monitoring and assessment tools for local activism, media and advocacy, communication, and training materials.
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  • Mobilizing Communities to Prevent Domestic Violence: A Resource Guide for Organizations in East and Southern Africa | HTML HTML
    by Raising Voices (2003)
    This resource guide describes a five-phased process of community mobilization, using five key strategies and participatory activities. The goal is to help organizations develop and implement a domestic violence project in their communities.
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  • Restoring Dignity: A Toolkit for Religious Communities to End Violence Against Women | PDF PDF (35 p.)
    by Religions for Peace (2009)
    Designed in collaboration with religious leaders from countries around the world, this toolkit offers religious leaders, faith communities and Inter-religious Councils the practical resources and tools to carry out awareness, prevention and advocacy programs to help end to violence against women.
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  • Mobilizing Religious Communities to Respond to Gender-based Violence and HIV: A Training Manual | PDF PDF (62 p.)
    by Britt Herstad for the USAID Health Policy Initiative (2009)
    This manual offers guidance to trainers who are conducting workshops for religious leaders and women leaders of faith on gender-based violence and HIV. It offers resources and approaches to use in training to raise awareness and to motivate action planning to address gender-based violence and HIV issues.
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  • A Call to Act: Engaging Religious Leaders and Communities in Addressing Gender-based Violence and HIV | PDF PDF (47 p.)
    by Britt Herstad for the USAID Health Policy Initiative (2009)
    This document offers information and guidance to religious leaders, communities, and institutions on gender-based violence and HIV, why they should address the issues, and how they can address them through specific activities and approaches.
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  • Violence Prevention: The Evidence - Changing cultural and social norms that support violence | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by the World Health Organization (2009)
    This document discusses the role of cultural and social norms in promoting VAW and presents promising interventions aiming to change these norms. The document also identifies challenges in rigorously evaluating the effectiveness of such interventions.
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Additional resources and guidelines for building programs and advocacy | Back to top

This section includes guidelines and practical suggestions to advocates, practitioners, program designers, and others to develop program and policy response to prevent and respond to VAW globally. Important to note here is a gap in resources related to the prosecution of VAW in these regions.

  • Preventing Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Against Women: Taking Action and Generating Evidence | PDF PDF (94 p.)
    by the World Health Organization and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2010)
    This document aims to provide sufficient information for policy-makers and planners to develop data-driven and evidence-based programs for preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women.
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  • Ending Violence Against Women Programming for Protection, Prevention and Care | PDF PDF (42 p.)
    by the United Nations Population Fund (August 2006)
    This document draws from UNFPA's experiences from the field and offers practical suggestions to practitioners for designing and implementing projects that address violence against women.
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  • Bringing Security Home: Combating Violence Against Women in the OSCE Region - A Compilation of Good Practices | PDF PDF (132 p.)
    by the Organisation For Security And Co-operation In Europe (OSCE) Secretariat (June 2009)
    This publication documents more than 95 good practices to help eliminate gender-based violence and highlights their impact in preventing violence against women.
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  • Addressing Violence against Women and Girls in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services | PDF PDF (103 p.)
    by Bonnie L. Shepard for the United Nations Populations Fund (2010)
    This guidance document focuses on the integration of violence against women resources into the existing Sexual and Reproductive Health framework.
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  • EU guidelines on violence against women and girls | PDF PDF (19 p.)
    by the European Union
    The EU's operational guidelines on VAW reiterates the three interconnected aims: prevention of violence, protection of and support for victims, and prosecution of the perpetrators of such violence and presents intervention tools to address general, specific, and individual cases of VAW.
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  • A Guide to Programming Gender-based Violence Prevention and Response Activities | PDF PDF (15 p.)
    by U.S. Agency for International Development (April 2009)
    This guide is intended to provide practical recommendations for USAID staff and presents a framework for addressing gender-based violence globally.
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  • Programming to address violence against women: 10 case studies | PDF PDF (106 p.)
    by the United Nations Population Fund
    This document presents a review of ten UNFPA-supported projects from ten countries to identify what works in programs to address violence against women, particularly in terms of community ownership and sustainability of projects.
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  • Programming to address violence against women: 8 case studies | PDF PDF (64 p.)
    by the United Nations Population Fund (2009)
    This second volume reviews eight programs that address different forms of violence against women to identify what works in programming to address violence against women.
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  • Rethinking Domestic Violence: A Training Process for Community Activists | HTML HTML
    by Raising Voices (2004)
    This is a training tool for community activists to help them strengthen capacity of community members to prevent domestic violence. It includes a series of training sessions that are participatory and that focus on helping training participants think about, discuss, and take actions to prevent domestic violence.
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  • Handbook for legislation on Violence Against Women | PDF PDF (58 p.)
    by the United Nations (July 2010)
    This handbook is intended to assist States and other stakeholders in enhancing existing or developing new laws to protect women. Included here are a summary of international and legal policy framework, a model framework for legislation on VAW, and a checklist of steps to be taken when drafting the legislation.
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  • Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence Against Women | PDF PDF (79 p.)
    by UN Women (2012)
    This handbook outlines the international and regional legal and policy framework which mandates States to adopt and implement National Action Plans to address VAW, including a model framework for adoption.
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Websites on international initiatives to end violence against women | Back to top

This section presents a list of websites with helpful resources and information on international initiatives to end VAW globally.

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women)
The main roles of UN Women are: To support inter-governmental bodies, such as the Commission on the Status of Women, in their formulation of policies, global standards and norms; To help Member States to implement these standards, standing ready to provide suitable technical and financial support to those countries that request it, and to forge effective partnerships with civil society; and To hold the UN system accountable for its own commitments on gender equality, including regular monitoring of system-wide progress. * See UN Women's Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence Against Women and Girls

UNiTE to End Violence Against Women
United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's UNiTE to End Violence against Women campaign aims to prevent and eliminate violence against women and girls in all parts of the world. UNiTE brings together a host of UN agencies and offices to galvanize action across the UN system to prevent and punish violence against women. Through UNiTE, the UN is joining forces with individuals, civil society and governments to put an end to violence against women in all its forms.

World Health Organization: Department of Gender, Women and Health
GWH aims to increase knowledge and strengthen the health sector response by gathering evidence, developing norms and standards for mainstreaming gender in health policies and programmes, strengthening capacity and engaging in advocacy on how gender and gender inequality affect health.

The World Bank: Gender and Development
The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. In September 2011, the World Bank Group launched World Development Report 2012: Gender and Development, the first in the series to focus on gender. The 2012 World Development Report identifies four areas where gender gaps are most significant―where direct policy efforts are required since higher incomes alone will do little to reduce existing inequalities.

Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence is based on the understanding that violence against women is a form of gender-based violence that is committed against women because they are women. It is the obligation of the state to fully address it in all its forms and to take measures to prevent violence against women, protect its victims and prosecute the perpetrators. Failure to do so would make it the responsibility of the state. The convention leaves no doubt: there can be no real equality between women and men if women experience gender-based violence on a large-scale and state agencies and institutions turn a blind eye.

Stop Rape Now: UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict
UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN Action) unites the work of 13 UN entities with the goal of ending sexual violence in conflict. It is a concerted effort by the UN system to improve coordination and accountability, amplify programming and advocacy, and support national efforts to prevent sexual violence and respond effectively to the needs of survivors.

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) represents the world's commitment to universal ideals of human dignity. We have a unique mandate from the international community to promote and protect all human rights.

Sexual Violence Research Initiative
The SVRI is a global research initiative that aims to promote priority driven, good quality research in the area of sexual violence, particularly in developing countries. We are building an experienced and committed network of researchers, policy makers, activists and donors to ensure that the many aspects of sexual violence are addressed from the perspective of different disciplines and cultures. The SVRI believes that prevention efforts and service provision must be informed by sound research and evidence.