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Special Collection: Human Trafficking

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Table of Contents:


Brief Introduction to the Human Trafficking Special Collection | Back to top

It is challenging to capture the complex dynamics of human trafficking, as well as to meaningfully weave the stories and voices of victims/survivors of human trafficking into any “collection” of resources. We respectfully acknowledge that the stories and identities of victims/survivors of human trafficking are far richer than their experience(s) as a “trafficked” person, and they should not solely be defined as such.

This special collection is not comprehensive or exhaustive. Rather, it is intended to serve as a starting point for a diverse audience; a beginning for what we hope will evolve into something more expansive, inclusive, and reflective of the myriad of issues and layers surrounding human trafficking.

This “Human Trafficking Special Collection” aims to illuminate different forms of, and perspectives on, human trafficking and to provide relevant resources to help guide more informed and critical advocacy, research, and thought. At the outset, we must acknowledge that language and terminology is not always consistent, agreed on or inclusive and recognize that myths, misinformation, and stereotypes surround some of the issues and individuals touched by human trafficking.

Although the included resources highlight a broad array of perspectives on human trafficking, more resources have been devoted to sex trafficking in order to show how this particularly intersects with women’s lives, the feminist movement, women’s human rights, violence against women, and the domestic violence community as we address these issues more specifically in our work. This is not intended to diminish other forms of human trafficking or overlook or reduce the intersections and overlap an individual can experience in their victimization(s) as a trafficked person.

Some Critical Thinking/Guiding Questions | Back to top

Questions offered in this section raise issues and enhance critical analysis regarding debate and the use and content of resources addressing human trafficking.

  • How are notions of “choice,” “consent”, and agency entangled in human trafficking and sex trafficking?
  • Is current language on trafficking comprehensive and inclusive?
  • What are some major obstacles facing individuals who have been trafficked?
    - How do variables such as immigration status, language and literacy, sex/gender, geographic location, age, race and ethnicity, country of origin, destination country(ies), family status, etc. factor into an individual’s access and willingness to seek help IF help is even available?
  • What are the social, economic, cultural, attitudinal, behavioral, and political factors that may enable human trafficking of all kinds?
  • How might the concepts associated with “supply and demand” theory complicate or clarify debate on human trafficking?
  • What are some integral considerations to be mindful of when any individual and/or agency works with a victim/survivor of human trafficking?
    - How should approaches and responses specifically be adapted when the individual is a victim/survivor of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation and abuse?
  • Are existing policies and laws adequate, appropriate, and sensitive in responding to the various needs or victims/survivors of trafficking when they are “rescued” or seek help and services?
    - How might legal and social responses further harm and/or endanger victims/survivors?
    - What are some of the strengths and best practice responses and approaches to combating trafficking of all forms as well as to empowering victims/survivors?
  • What is “justice” for a victim/survivor of trafficking? Who gets to define this?
  • What are some of the realities an individual may face when returning (forcibly or by choice) to their country of origin – particularly for women victims/survivors of sex trafficking?
    - How might they still be (or even be more) “vulnerable,” traumatized, stigmatized, and in danger?

Organizations and Initiatives | Back to top

This section features a list of websites with helpful resources and information on human trafficking.

Anti-Slavery International

  • Under “slavery today” click on “trafficking”
  • Information on trafficking, from general and introductory pieces to specific regional and country reports and resources

Human Rights Watch (HRW)

  • Under “campaigns” click on “campaign archive” and “Campaign Against the Trafficking of Women and Girls (2003)”
  • Offers link to the U.S. State Department yearly trafficking reports from 2001-2006 and links to the U.S. State Department Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
  • Contains some key HRW documents organized by year with a global/international focus

Center for Women Policy Studies

  • Under US PACT (US Policy Advocacy to Combat Trafficking)
  • Click on “visit site” in the lower right hand
  • Contains fact sheets on U.S. laws and policies, as well as breakdowns state-by-state Clearinghouse with searchable annotated bibliography

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)

  • Comprehensive resources on trafficking including:
    • “Campaigns” addressing issues and dynamics of trafficking
    • “Fact book” with regional and country-specific information
    • “Resource library,” with some articles in Spanish and French
    • “Contacts page” has contact information for CATW in different parts of the world

Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)

  • This global alliance connects trafficking, migrant women, and human rights in its mission and work
  • Website is accessible in French, Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Italian and English
  • Among other things, offers international instruments and “key publications on trafficking and migration” under its “Web Resources”

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

  • “The IOM Handbook: Direct Assistance for Victims of Trafficking”
  • Under “Activities” “Regulating Migration” and “Counter-trafficking” there is some information about trafficking and IOM’s role in counter-trafficking
  • More information can be found under “About Migration” “Managing Migration” and “Irregular Migration”
    • “Nature of Human Trafficking”
    • “Consequences of Trafficking and Policy Responses”

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (Resource Center)

  • Service offered by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
  • 24 hour toll-free hotline 1.888.373.7888 (interpreters available)
  • E-mail inquiries in English, Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Polish

The Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking - under the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)

  • Comprehensively outlines U.S. federal efforts to address trafficking; including assisting and protecting trafficking victims as well as pursuing legal measures to investigate and prosecute perpetrators

The Protection Project

  • “The Protection Project is a human rights research institute based at the Foreign Policy Institute at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.”
  • Go under “Our Programs” “The Protection Project U.S. Training and Assistance Website”
  • There is a wealth of information and resources through The Protection Project, particularly U.S. based. A full literature review is also available

Florida Freedom Partnership

  • Services to Southern Florida communities for trafficked persons, but also contains broader information outside Florida context
  • FAQ page under “About Trafficking”
  • Stats on trafficking in the US
  • Links to other resources

United States Department of Justice (USDOJ)

  • In the left-hand box under “What We Do” “Fight Trafficking in Persons”
  • DOJ has a national hotline that operates between 9 am – 5 pm (Eastern Standard Time) 1.888.428.7581 (toll-free, voice and TTY for hearing impaired)
  • Trafficking in Persons & Worker Exploitation Task Force (TPWETF), which offers resources, initiatives, and efforts of the USDOJ “to pursue and prosecute human traffickers.”

International Rescue Committee (IRC)

  • Under “What We Do” “Anti-trafficking”
  • IRC’s Anti-Trafficking Action Coalition (ATAC)

The Polaris Project

  • Information also available in Japanese

Campus Coalition Against Trafficking (CCAT)

Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST)

Breaking Free based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Standing Against Global Exploitation (SAGE) based in San Francisco, California, USA

The Paul & Lisa Program based in Connecticut

Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS) based in New York, USA

Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

  • Legal technical assistance for immigration issues

Youth Advocate Program International (YAPI)

POPPY Project based in London, UK

Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center

  • “Programs and Services”
  • “LUCHA: A Women’s Legal Project”

Freedom Network USA

U.S. Women Without Borders

Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights – Stop Violence Against Women (a project by MN Advocates for Human Rights)

Ending Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes

Free the Slaves

The Emancipation Network

Amnesty International USA

  • “Human Rights Topics,” “Women,” “Special Focus Areas”

Global Fund for Women

Network of Sex Work Projects

  • “About NSWP,” “Public Announcements & Reports,” “Research for Sex Work”

United Nations Office for Drugs and Crimes (UNODC)

  • “Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings”

Women Watch

  • “Topics” “Trafficking”

World Health Organization (WHO)

  • Search using “trafficking”

Boat People SOS

Safe Horizons

  • “What We Do”
  • “Immigrants and Refugees”

Worker’s Rights Law Center

  • “Our Projects”
  • Scroll down to “Combating Human Trafficking”

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

Legal Momentum – The Immigrant Women Program

National Sexual Violence Resource Center

  • “NSVRC Library General Resources”
  • Specific searches by typing in keyword or phrase
  • Also offers “additional search” options

Tahirih Justice Center

United States Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women

  • VAWA 2005
  • Includes information and resources on violence against women; including domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking, stalking, etc.
  • Provides VAWA Grant Program Statutes

Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking


  • Under “Activities”
  • Click on “Anti-trafficking Program”
  • Click on the red “human trafficking” and you will find more information on US federal law, Sexual Exploitation, Labor Exploitation, the TVPA – including basic services and immigration relief available to victims/survivors of human trafficking

National Immigrant Justice Center (NIJC)

  • Under "What We Do"
  • Click on "Trafficking"
  • NIJC is located in Chicago, Illinois (USA)
  • Under "Contact Us" you will find intake and contact information in English and Espanol (Spanish).
  • This organization serves the Midwest region of the United States

Resources: Articles, Papers and Reports | Back to top

Documents included in this section provide an overview of issues and debate related to human trafficking. Materials review various government and community-based responses from legal remedies to prevention efforts. The dynamics of sex trafficking are also explored, with particular attention to how social, economic, cultural, attitudinal, and political factors intersect with sex trafficking and the sexual exploitation and abuse of women.

  • The 2009 Trafficking in Persons Report | PDF PDF (324 p.)
    by U.S. Department of State (June 2009)
    This is the ninth annual TIP Report; it seeks to increase global awareness of the human trafficking phenomenon by shedding new light on various facets of the problem and highlighting shared and individual of the international community.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns | PDF PDF (128 p.)
    by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (April 2006)
    This report attempts to increase understanding about the depth, breadth, and scope of trafficking in persons in hopes of promoting more coordinated and efficient responses to counter trafficking. (10)
    + View Summary
  • Victims of Trafficking and Victim Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report | PDF PDF (240 p.)
    by US State Department (June 2007)
    Reports on foreign governments’ efforts to eliminate severe forms of human trafficking. Also aims to raise awareness, highlight efforts in the international community, and encourage governments to counter trafficking.
    + View Summary
  • Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons Report | PDF PDF (37 p.)
    by United States Department of Justice (September 2006)
    This is an extensive report that examines the efforts of the U.S. Government towards combating trafficking. Topics include domestic/immigration benefits, international programs, investigations/prosecutions, and training and outreach programs.
    + View Summary
  • The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking | PDF PDF (65 p.)
    by Donna Hughes (June 2005)
    This paper is about prostitution and sex trafficking. It examines the “demand” and financial profit that fuels the sex trade market and gives rise to the “exploiters” who traffic persons. State response is also examined.
    + View Summary
  • Best Practices for Ending Demand for Sex Trafficking | PDF PDF (73 p.)
    by Donna Hughes (August 2004)
    An extensive examination of the sex trade market that focuses on the men who purchase sex acts, criminalization of purchasers, and efforts to combat foreign travel to purchase sex acts; community efforts and faith-based healing programs are also examined.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking in Persons in North America | PDF PDF (9 p.)
    by GAATW Working Paper (2003)
    Examines the relationship between Canada-US-Mexico in the effort to combat trafficking across borders with a focus on the increased vulnerability to trafficking that migrant workers suffer as a result of strengthened “post-9/11” US immigration policies.
    + View Summary
  • The Links Between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking: A Briefing Handbook | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by Monica O’ Connor and Grainne Healy, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women & European Women’s Lobby (2006)
    Handbook promoting preventative measures to combat trafficking that includes information on the factors that drive women and children into sexual slavery, the role of demand, impacts and consequences of prostitution, and legislative responses.
    + View Summary
  • Hidden Slaves: Forced Labor in the United States | PDF PDF (73 p.)
    by Free the Slaves and Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley (September 2004)
    This research study covers the nature and scope of forced labor in the United States, focuses on particular efforts to understand and address the problem, and recommends measures to improve the US response and assistance.
    + View Summary
  • Human Trafficking: Seeking to Expose and End Modern-Day Slavery | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Robin Hassler Thompson, International Bar News (March 2004)
    This is a short summary about human trafficking that defines the practice of trafficking and provides a brief overview of information about traffickers and victims, legal remedies and other responses.
    + View Summary
  • Legal Initiatives in anti-trafficking interventions | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Oretha L. Gilbert, GAATW Working Paper
    Research study intended to assist advocates and legal allies in the legislative processes of implementing anti-trafficking laws and prosecuting traffickers within the US. Data, methodology, definitions, and international trafficking cases are included.
    + View Summary
  • Taking trafficked persons’ rights seriously in the process of recovery | PDF PDF (13 p.)
    by Janice Fong, GAATW Working Paper
    Noting that the human rights of trafficked persons are often overlooked, the aim of this paper is to encourage a rights-based approach to providing a comprehensive framework for combating human trafficking and respecting the rights of trafficked persons.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking – a demand led problem?: A multi-country pilot study | PDF PDF (71 p.)
    by Bridget Anderson and Julia O’Connell Davidson, Save the Children (2002)
    This is an extensive study that researches the role of the “demand” for trafficked persons or otherwise un-free labor in the commercial sex sector across the world and analyzes the vast impact of the “demand” on human trafficking for sexual exploitation.
    + View Summary
  • Is Trafficking in Human Beings Demand Driven?: A Multi-Country Pilot Study | PDF PDF (54 p.)
    by Bridget Anderson and Julia O’Connell Davidson, IOM Migration Research Series No. 15 (December 2003)
    This is a multi-country pilot study that analyzes human trafficking from the side of the “demand” in attempt to analyze some of the factors that fuel the commercial sex trade in an effort to contribute to the growing body of research about the sex sector.
    + View Summary
  • Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States: International and Domestic Trends | PDF PDF (140 p.)
    by Co-principal investigators Janice G. Raymond and Donna M. Hughes, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (March 2001)
    Research concentrates on the trafficking of women within the US. Topics include sections that define the problem of human trafficking, research aims and methods, operations of the sex industry, and the background of women in the sex industry in the US.
    + View Summary
  • International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime | PDF PDF (80 p.)
    by Amy O’Neill Richard, DCI Exceptional Intelligence Analyst Program, Center for the Study of Intelligence (April 2000)
    This paper draws attention to trafficking of women in the US by framing and detailing issues, challenges, and legal gaps.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation in the Americas | PDF PDF (11 p.)
    by Alison Phinney, Inter-American Commission of Women & Women, Health and Development Program (2001)
    Analysis provides a conceptual framework for trafficking with accompanying graphs that explain the relationships between demand, supply, and impunity. With respect to trafficking, issues of human rights, health concerns, and legal avenues are reviewed.
    + View Summary
  • Who Is There To Help Us?: How the System Fails Sexually Exploited Girls in the United States: Examples from Four American Cities | PDF PDF (59 p.)
    by Sara Ann Friedman, ECPAT-USA (2005)
    This report about trafficking in the US provides insight into the lack of recognition or responsive aid that American girls and women who are unseen victims of trafficking receive in the US versus those victims who are not US citizens.
    + View Summary
  • Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights aspects of the victims of trafficking in persons, especially women and children | HTML HTML (22 p.)
    by Sigma Huda, Special Rapporteur, A/HRC/4/23 (January 2007)
    This article addresses the issue of “forced marriage” through the context of trafficking in persons by defining its nature and forms and by analyzing its foundation as a reason for or a result of trafficking. Protection and prevention measures discussed.
    + View Summary
  • Oversexed | HTML HTML (6 p.)
    by Debbie Nathan, The Nation (August 29, 2005)
    Critique of Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Primarily argues that while the language of the law is well intended, in practice the TVPA falls short of its goals, often times serving as a hindrance to victims and advocates working to secure assistance a
    + View Summary
  • Unequal | HTML HTML (5 p.)
    by Melissa Farley, CATW (August 30, 2005)
    “Unequal” challenges the article “Oversexed” by asserting that prostitution is not simply a form of labor but rather an exploitative form of violence against women. Topics such as violence against women as a primary risk factor for HIV are covered.
    + View Summary
  • Why the Faith Trade is Interested in the Sex Trade | HTML HTML (4 p.)
    by Jennifer Block, Conscience (Summer/Autumn 2004)
    Article about trafficking that examines varied interpretations of what “trafficking” is and who its victims are. Interpretations include idea that low-wage unprotected labor paves the way to slavery and that exploited workers are victims of trafficking.
    + View Summary
  • Sex Trafficking is Not 'Sex Work' | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    by Janice G. Raymond, Conscience (Spring 2005)
    Response to an article about role of faith-based groups in trafficking: argues that prostitution is not just “sex work” but widespread form of violence against women; social reasons for its existence are analyzed.
    + View Summary
  • The New T Visa: Is the Higher Extreme Hardship Standard Too High for Bona Fide Trafficking Victims? | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Jennifer M. Wetmore, The New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol. 9:1 (2003)
    Paper analyzes whether or not T visa, a temporary nonimmigrant visa for trafficking victims, provides victims with actual protection from harsh penalties for illegal status; argues standard is too high for many to benefit and fails to aid many victims.
    + View Summary

Fact Sheets | Back to top

This section includes a select list of fact sheets highlighting federal trafficking cases and legislation, tactics used by traffickers, common challenges and consequences experienced by victims, and tips for effective identification and intervention. Refer to some of the organization’s websites for more fact sheet resources.

  • Fact Sheet: Distinctions Between Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (9 p.)
    by The Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (January 2005)
    This fact sheet “explains the differences between human smuggling and human trafficking.” It also includes specific US statutes, charts, and case examples.
    + View Summary
  • Fact Sheet on Federal Prosecutions of Trafficking Cases in the United States | PDF PDF (7 p.)
    by National Institute on State Policy, Center for Women Policy Studies (May 2006)
    Briefly outlines selected US federal sex and labor trafficking cases, and cases of sexual violence and labor trafficking and sex tourism. TVPA and PROTECT Act of 2003 also mentioned.
    + View Summary
  • Fact Sheet on Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Purposes in the Americas | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Inter-American Commission of Women & Women, Health and Development Program (July 2001)
    Focuses on trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. Highlights obstacles victims face in trying to escape and violent tactics used by traffickers. Points out some key health concerns connected with sexual exploitation.
    + View Summary
  • Modern Day Slavery: Human Trafficking Health Consequences | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by Vital Voices Global Partnership
    Offers some characteristics to help identify a potential victim of trafficking. Provides a list of key health concerns/risks for victims of trafficking and briefly mentions specific areas that victims may need assistance and services in.
    + View Summary
  • Fact Sheet on State Anti-Trafficking Laws | PDF PDF (17 p.)
    by National Institute on State Policy, Center for Women Policy Studies (September 2006)
    State anti-trafficking initiatives and laws. Includes summaries of all state laws addressing trafficking as of Sept. 2006 by: Criminalization Statutes, Statewide Interagency Task Forces on Human Trafficking, Bride Trafficking, and Sex Tourism.
    + View Summary
  • Fact Sheet on Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000 | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by Administration for Children & Families, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
    Focuses on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2002 (TVPA) (Public Law 106-386). Discusses goal of TVPA to combat trafficking through prevention, protection and prosecution. Includes TVPA Reauthorization of 2003.
    + View Summary

Legal and Human Rights Instruments | Back to top

The original and reauthorized versions of the U.S. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act are included here in full text and in summation. In addition, international conventions and protocols related to human rights, the human rights of women, slavery, human trafficking, and organized crime are presented.

United States
  • Summary of the U.S. Anti-Trafficking Law: Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and Trafficking Victims Reauthorization Acts of 2003 and 2005 (TVPA) | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Vital Voices Global Partnership
    Summarizes legislative protocol, funding, and progress of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 and the reauthorization acts of 2003 and 2005. Initiatives and funding are organized into five comprehensive categories.
    + View Summary
  • Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 | PDF PDF (86 p.)
    The TVPA of 2000 is a public law aimed at combating trafficking in persons, especially in the sex trade, slavery, involuntary servitude, and reauthorizes certain Federal programs to prevent violence against women. Violence Against Women Act 2000 included.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 | PDF PDF (13 p.)
    by 108th Congress of the United States (January 7, 2003)
    The TVPA Reauthorization of 2003 reviews the progress and success of the 2000 act, addresses the unintended barriers and unforeseen limitations affecting victims, and provides recommendations for additional research.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by 109th Congress of the United States (January 4, 2005)
    The TVPA Reauthorization of 2005 analyzes the progress of the US government to combat trafficking since the Act in 2000 and 2003. Congressional studies and findings provide recommendations for future funding.
    + View Summary
  • Slavery Convention | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1926)
    The Slavery Convention of 1926 provides definitions, prevention measures, and suggestions for anti-slavery legislation.
    + View Summary
  • Protocol amending the Slavery Convention | HTML HTML (1 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1953)
    Articles that supplement the Slavery Convention of 1926 are written to be more inclusive and clear within the language of anti-slavery legislation.
    + View Summary
  • Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and institutions and practices similar to slavery | HTML HTML (5 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1956)
    Provides a large overview of slavery, the slave trade, institutions, and practices similar to slavery.
    + View Summary
  • Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of others | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1949)
    The Convention is aimed at the suppression of trafficking, exploitation, and prostitution of others, particularly in girls and women. The protocol for punishment, extradition, and information about legal rights and protective services are detailed.
    + View Summary
  • Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women | HTML HTML (12 p.)
    by United Nations Office for the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1979)
    Convention aims to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women. In doing so, the convention lists and discusses the inalienable rights that both men and women equally share.
    + View Summary
  • Additional protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women | HTML HTML (6 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1999)
    Additional protocol outlines directions on how state parties should communicate with committees on the elimination of violence against women.
    + View Summary
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child | HTML HTML (30 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1989)
    Convention on the Rights of the Child outlines the rights that are afforded to minors under the age of eighteen. Information about protective services are included.
    + View Summary
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography | HTML HTML (12 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2000)
    Optional Protocol supplements the Convention on the Rights of the Child by extending appropriate measures to guard against the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography.
    + View Summary
  • United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children | PDF PDF (50 p.)
    by United Nations (2000)
    Convention aims to combat the smuggling of migrants and to protect the rights of victims of trafficking. Convention details suggested protocol for suppressing trafficking and punishing offenders.
    + View Summary
  • Beijing Platform for Action | HTML HTML (10 p.)
    by The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women Department of Economic and Social Affairs (September 1995)
    The Beijing Platform for Action aims at furthering women’s empowerment and discusses the importance of women in society as key contributors to the economy and combating poverty; includes discussion about the “feminization of poverty.”
    + View Summary
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    by United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1948)
    Declaration of Human Rights outlines the inherent rights held by every man, woman, and child – that all humans are born free and equal.
    + View Summary
  • Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime | HTML HTML (12 p.)
    by United Nations (2000)
    The Palermo Protocol is aimed at suppressing the crime of human trafficking, providing protection for victims, and punishing offenders.
    + View Summary
  • After Palermo: An Overview of what the Convention and Protocols Hope to Accomplish | HTML HTML (10 p.)
    by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
    “After Palermo” is a follow up to the Palermo Protocol that aims to further the goals of the first protocol by criminalizing organized crime, combating money-laundering, and pursuing the extradition of criminals.
    + View Summary
  • The Annotated Guide To The Complete UN Trafficking Protocol | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by Ann D. Jordan, International Human Rights Law Group (2002)
    Annotated Guide provides definitions and clarifications of UN Trafficking Protocol.
    + View Summary
  • Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings and its Explanatory Report | PDF PDF (80 p.)
    by Council of Europe (2005)
    Council of the European Convention provides definitions and information about prevention and protection measures, victims rights, investigation and prosecution, and other international instruments.
    + View Summary

Policy and Practice Guides/Toolkits | Back to top

This section includes practices and considerations developed for, and informed by, anti-violence advocates, human service providers, law enforcement personnel, legal experts, journalists, and others in approaching, addressing, and responding to human trafficking. This area also includes recommendations for promoting prevention, enhancing victim/survivor services, strengthening perpetrator accountability, and raising public awareness.

  • Domestic & Sexual Violence Advocate Handbook on Human Trafficking, 2nd Edition | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence (2004)
    This document produced by the FCADV Trafficking Project, designed to aid domestic and sexual violence advocates in working with victims of trafficking and in better understanding the issues involved with trafficking.
    + View Summary
  • Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons | PDF PDF (250 p.)
    by Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2006)
    This Toolkit offers “a selection of conceptual, legislative and organizational tools in use in different parts of the world.” (ix)
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking: Considerations and Recommendations for Domestic Violence Advocates | HTML HTML (10 p.)
    by Firoza Chic Dabby, Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence
    This document includes information for domestic violence advocates working with victims of trafficking. After a brief overview of statistics and issue analysis, the document provides considerations and recommendations for advocates in seven key areas
    + View Summary
  • Prevention of Domestic Violence and Trafficking in Human Beings: Training Manual | PDF PDF (209 p.)
    by Winrock International (2002)
    This is an extensive resource guide that serves as a training manual for advocates and NGOs that focuses on the prevention of violence against women and the prevention of trafficking in women.
    + View Summary
  • Human Trafficking Service Provider Manual for Certified Domestic Violence Centers | PDF PDF (35 p.)
    by Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence (September 2004)
    This manual is designed to assist advocates working with trafficking victims. Information on service provision, benefits, legal issues, criminal prosecution of traffickers, working with the media, funding, and anti-trafficking resources is included.
    + View Summary
  • Combating Trafficking in Persons: A Directory of Organisations | PDF PDF (238 p.)
    by F. Luckoo and M. Tzvetkova, CHANGE Anti-Trafficking Programme (2002)
    This document is a collective resource for advocates, victims, and others looking to get in contact with relevant service providers in country of destination or origin.
    + View Summary
  • The Anti-Human Trafficking Directory of Legal and Social Service Providers | PDF PDF (27 p.)
    by International Rescue Committee (August 2006)
    This directory groups organizations and service providers together into one document to better enable and aid local advocates and victims in finding organizations and assistance from a multitude of locations throughout the US.
    + View Summary
  • ‘Press for Change:’ A Guide for Journalists Reporting on the Prostitution and Trafficking of Women | PDF PDF (32 p.)
    by Julie Bindel (2006)
    This is a guide for journalists reporting on trafficked women and the sex trade industry; guidebook makes recommendations to journalists and strives to raise sensitivities in reporting on exploitation and prostitution.
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  • Resource Guide for State Legislators: Model Provisions for State anti-Trafficking Laws | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by National Institute on State Policy on Trafficking of Women & Girls of the Center for Women Policy St (July 2005)
    Resource guide for state legislators working toward making trafficking a state felony offense, urging states to pass criminalization statues, and supporting a task force to combat human trafficking.
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  • The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by International Association of Chiefs of Police (2006)
    This is a guide for law enforcement officials working to secure protection and assistance for victims of trafficking that provides guidance in investigation and prosecution of offenders.
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  • Eligibility of Immigrant Victims of Severe Forms of Trafficking and Family Members for Legal Services | PDF PDF (5 p.)
    by Helaine M. Barnett, Legal Services Corporation (2005)
    This document outlines the legal services that victims of trafficking and their family members are eligible to receive, regardless of illegal immigration status.
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  • The Exploitation of Trafficked Women | PDF PDF (100 p.)
    by Graeme R. Newman, Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice (2006)
    This guidebook is designed for law enforcement officials working with victims of trafficking; the four stages of human trafficking are discussed and recommendations for the response to victims of trafficking are addressed.
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  • Primer on the Male Demand for Prostitution | PDF PDF (13 p.)
    by Ilvi Jõe-Cannon (ed), CATW (2006)
    This article examines the problem of human trafficking from the side of the demand and addresses some misconceptions about the “positive” effects of legalizing prostitution.
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  • Stop Trafficking of People: An Introductory Resource | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Migration and Refugee Services, Office of Refugee Programs
    Addresses core considerations around prevention of trafficking, protection of victims of trafficking, and prosecution of perpetrators of trafficking. Aims to generate community awareness of and involvement in combating trafficking and serving its victims.
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  • Benefits Eligibility for Trafficking Victims | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Migration and Refugee Services, Office of Refugee Programs (April 2004)
    Provides brief overview of the benefits and services available to “certified” victims of trafficking who do not have legal status in the United States.
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  • A Trafficking Guide to Assist Trafficked Persons | PDF PDF (82 p.)
    by United States Conference of Catholic Bishops & Catholic Charities USA, DreamWeavers Video (2006)
    This “Powerpoint” style guide starts by offering a human trafficking framework. It then discusses the TVPA, practical considerations for helping trafficking victims, and specifics on child victims of human trafficking.
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  • A Legal Guide for Advocates Providing Services to Victims of Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (301 p.)
    by US Conference of Catholic Bishops, Migration and Refugee Services, Catholic Legal Immigration Network, & Legal Aid Foundation of Los Angeles (November 2004)
    This legal guide contains information in chapter format ranging from “An Overview of Human Trafficking,” “T Nonimmigrant Visas,” “Continued Presence,” “Benefits for Victims,” “Special Immigrant Juvenile Status for Children,” and resources for advocates.
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