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Special Collection: Human Trafficking

Table of Contents:



 

Introduction | Back to top

Human trafficking is defined by the United Nations as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of:

  • Threats or use of force or other forms of coercion;
  • Abduction;
  • Fraud or deception;
  • Abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability; and
  • Giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person or having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation (Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, 2003).

Human trafficking occurs both in the United States (U.S.) and abroad, and can have devastating effects on its victims.

Victims of human trafficking in the U.S. include both U.S. citizens and residents trafficked within its borders, as well as foreign nationals trafficked into the country from abroad. International traffickers consider the U.S. a major destination for victims of both sexual and labor exploitation. Traffickers use “push-pull” factors to take advantage of their intended targets (Chang, 2006; Dabby & Liou, 2014). Some examples of “push-pull” factors include:

PUSH FACTORS

PULL FACTORS

War, violence, genocide

Safety and security

Persecution

Freedom from persecution

Lack/limited employment & educational opportunities

Availability of employment & educational opportunities

Disasters, both natural and man-made

Improved quality of life

Given these complex realities and experiences, victims of trafficking may need a range of supports and services.  

The NRCDV recognizes that there are different philosophies, approaches, and debates surrounding human trafficking. Readers are encouraged to examine resources with a critical eye and an appreciation of the depth and breadth of the issues and perspectives on human trafficking.

This special collection is intended to help those interested in learning more about human trafficking and intersecting issues gain a working knowledge of the complexities of human trafficking, as well as applicable laws and policies in the U.S. and internationally. It is also intended to provide resources and tools for practitioners and professionals working at the intersections of human trafficking, domestic violence and sexual violence.

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC), operated by Polaris Project, is a "national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls and texts from anywhere in the country, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year."

Call 1-888-373-7888 or text HELP or INFO to BeFree (233733) to report a tip; to connect with anti-trafficking services in your area; or, to request training and technical assistance, general information or specific anti-trafficking resources. The hotline is available in both English and Spanish.


fact sheets and statistics | Back to top

The fact sheets below highlight federal trafficking laws and legislation, tactics used by traffickers, common challenges and consequences experienced by victims, training and tips for effective identification and intervention.

  • Human Trafficking: The Facts | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by the Blue Heart Campaign, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
    The Blue Heart Campaign is an international anti-trafficking public interest campaign headed by the UNODC. The fact sheet includes basic facts on the trafficking of women and children, as well as on the costs of trafficking.
    + View Summary
  • Fact Sheet on State Anti-Trafficking Laws | PDF PDF (50 p.)
    by US PACT (Policy Advocacy to Combat Trafficking), a program of the Center for Women Policy Studies (2012)
    This fact sheet provides a summary of all state laws addressing trafficking in persons, updated through March 2012.
    + View Summary
  • Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) Fact Sheet | HTML HTML
    by the Polaris Project (2013)
    The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 “created the first comprehensive federal law to address human trafficking.” This fact sheet includes key provisions of the Act with respect to prevention, protection, and prosecution.
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  • Continued Presence: Temporary Immigration Status for Victims of Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, The Blue Campaign (2013)
    This fact sheet defines “continued presence,” explains why it is an important tool for federal state and local law enforcement, offers information on the application process, describes who authorizes Continued Presence applications and who qualifies for this immigration status.
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  • Labor Trafficking Fact Sheet | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by the National Human Trafficking Resource Center, Department of Health and Human Services (August 2012)
    This fact sheet defines labor trafficking, as per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, the forms of labor trafficking, identification of victims, the impact on the health of victims and information on assisting victims.
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This Anti-Trafficking Tip Card notes the difference between trafficking and smuggling and provides a checklist of trafficking indicators, a number to report suspicious behavior and access to the Human Trafficking website of U.S. Homeland Security.

  • Sex Trafficking Fact Sheet | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by the National Human Trafficking Resource Center, Department of Health and Human Services (2012)
    This fact sheet defines sex trafficking, and describes the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, various harm faced by victims of sex trafficking, types of sex trafficking, and information on assisting victims.
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  • Fact Sheet on Federal Prosecutions of Trafficking Cases in the United States | PDF PDF (7 p.)
    by National Institute on State Policy, Center for Women Policy Studies (May 2006)
    This fact sheet briefly outlines selected U.S. federal sex and labor trafficking cases, and cases of sexual violence and labor trafficking and sex tourism. TVPA and PROTECT Act of 2003 are also addressed.
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  • Child Victims of Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by the U.S Department of Health and Human Services (August 2012)
    This fact sheet provides information on human trafficking of children in the United States, what human trafficking is, reporting human trafficking, the responsibilities of government officials, assistance for child victims, how to obtain assistance for foreign child victims and the care for unaccompanied or separated child victims.
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  • Fact Sheet: Foster Care and Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by CAS Research & Education (affiliate of California Against Slavery)
    This fact sheet describes the link between foster care and sex trafficking, and how foster parents can help prevent trafficking.
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  • Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by the U.S. Department of Education (2013)
    This fact sheet was developed for those working in school settings and provides an overview of human trafficking, how it affects schools, tips for identifying victims, and steps for reporting human trafficking.
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  • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Fact Sheet | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Innocence Lost Working Group (2010)
    This fact sheet defines commercial sexual exploitation of children, how children become victims, barriers victims face, statistics, indicators for exploitation and agencies for assistance and information.
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  • The Prostitution of Children in America: A Guide for Parents and Guardians | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Innocence Lost Working Group (March 2010)
    This fact sheet explains child sex trafficking, how children become victims, who the perpetrators/pimps are, statistics, indicators for exploitation, suggestions on how to keep your child safer and agencies for assistance and information.
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  • Freedom Network USA: Child Trafficking for Labor in the United States | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Freedom Network USA (September 2012)
    This fact sheet defines child trafficking, describes how children are trafficked for labor, lists the challenges in identifying and providing services to child labor trafficking survivors and offers recommendations to end child labor trafficking.
    + View Summary

government reports and initiatives | Back to top

This section includes reports by governmental agencies and entities on domestic and international human trafficking. Resources are divided into two subsections – U.S. Reports and International Reports.

Sources of U.S. Reports include:

  • President's Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
  • Department of Justice

Sources of International Reports include:

  • Department of State
  • International Organization for Migration (the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration that works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners)
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Topics covered include the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the U.S. through 2017, which "lays out a 5-year path for further strengthening coordination, collaboration, and capacity across governmental and nongovernmental entities dedicated to providing support to the victims of human trafficking," as well as related strategic efforts and action plans by the government designed to expand victim assistance in the U.S. Also included are reports on trafficking in other countries designed to shed light on the issue within the international community.

U.S. Reports
  • Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States 2013-2017 | PDF PDF (84 p.)
    by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students (2013)
    This action plan “lays out a 5-year path for further strengthening coordination, collaboration, and capacity across governmental and nongovernmental entities dedicated to providing support to the victims of human trafficking.”
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Click on the image above to view an infographic of the multi-level interagency cooperation provided by the Federal agencies, noting key services and tasks.
  • Infographic: U.S. Government Response to Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (2014)
    The infographic displays the multi-level interagency cooperation provided by the Federal agencies, noting key services and tasks. Click on the name of the agency to go directly to the website of that agency.
    + View Summary
  • OVC Report to the Nation 2013, Fiscal Years 2011-2012: Transforming Today's Vision into Tomorrow's Reality | HTML HTML
    by the Office for Victims of Crime (2013)
    OVC's Report to the Nation summarizes the progress made in upholding crime victims' rights and providing high-quality services to victims, survivors, and communities during fiscal years 2011−2012.
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The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Program (ATIP) of the Office of Refugee Resettlement “identifies and serves victims of human trafficking, assisting foreign trafficking victims in the United States to become eligible for public benefits and services to the same extent as refugees. The program also raises awareness of human trafficking through the HHS Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking campaign. The intent of the campaign is to increase the identification of trafficking victims in the United States and to help those victims receive the benefits and services they need to restore their lives.”

  • Attorney General's Annual Report to Congress and Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons for Fiscal Year 2012 | PDF PDF (181 p.)
    by the United States Department of Justice (2014)
    This report, the tenth submitted to Congress since 2004, describes the U.S. government’s comprehensive campaign to combat TIP during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, including efforts to carry out the 3P strategy.
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  • Vision 21: Transforming Victim Services Final Report | PDF PDF (63 p.)
    by the Office for Victims of Crime (May 2013)
    This Final Report provides a set of findings and broad recommendations, informed by stakeholder forums and literature reviews, that form a framework for strategic, transformative change. It outlines ways the field can overcome the obstacles it faces and change how it meets victims' needs and addresses those who perpetrate crime.
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  • Look Beneath the Surface | HTML HTML
    [13:20:00] by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of Refugee Resettlement (April 2011)
    This informational video on human trafficking and how to identify and assist victims is part of the Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking public awareness campaign.
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  • Anti-Human Trafficking Task For Strategy and Operations e-Guide | HTML HTML
    by the Office for Victims of Crime (2011)
    This online training discusses anti-human trafficking task force strategies and operations.
    + View Summary
International Reports
  • The 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report | HTML HTML
    by the U.S. Department of State (June 2014)
    This report seeks to increase global awareness of the human trafficking phenomenon by shedding new light on various facets of the problem and highlighting shared and individual perspectives of the international community.
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  • Migrant Assistance Division Annual Review 2012 | PDF PDF (188 p.)
    by the International Organization for Migration (2012)
    This publication provides a comprehensive overview on the Migrants Assistance Division’s projects implemented in 2012. It focuses on protection and services for vulnerable migrants, including victims of trafficking, unaccompanied migrant children, and other stranded migrants who have suffered abuse or exploitation and also addresses assisted voluntary return and reintegration (AVRR).
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  • Report of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children | HTML HTML
    by Joy Ngozi Ezeilo, Special Rapporteur, A/HRC/23/48 (March 18, 2013)
    The report comprises a thematic analysis by the Special Rapporteur of the integration of a human rights-based approach in measures to discourage the demand that fosters all forms of exploitation of persons, especially women and children, and which leads to human trafficking.
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  • Understanding and Addressing Violence Against Women: Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) (2012)
    Part of a series of information sheets on violence against women, this document provides a summary of what human trafficking is, its prevalence, the health effects, the health rights and services for trafficked persons, government obligation to the health of trafficked persons, and best approaches to deal with human trafficking from policy-makers, health-care providers and researchers and funders.
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  • Trafficking of Women and Girls: Report of the Secretary-General, A/67/170 | PDF PDF (17 p.)
    by the United Nations General Assembly (July 23, 2012)
    This report provides information on measures by States and activities within the United Nations system to tackle trafficking in women and girls. Background information is provided as to the estimated number of globally trafficked victims as well as the documented number of assisted victims.
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  • Affected For Life | HTML HTML
    by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
    This film is targeted at prosecutors, judges, law enforcement officers and other specialized audiences, and illustrates the elements and different forms of human trafficking
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  • Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons | HTML HTML
    by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2008)
    This Toolkit presents guidance, promising practices and resources to individuals working to prevent trafficking, assist victims and promote international cooperation.
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  • Counter Trafficking and Assistance to Vulnerable Migrants: Annual Report of Activities 2011 | PDF PDF (112 p.)
    by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2011)
    This report, which details activities of the IOM’s Assistance to Vulnerable Migrants programs and projects, focuses on IOM’s direct assistance to trafficked persons and vulnerable migrants, in particular the provision of voluntary, safe, and sustainable return and reintegration assistance.
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  • Global Report on Trafficking in Persons | PDF PDF (102 p.)
    by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2009)
    Based on data gathered from 155 countries, this report offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking.
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  • ILO 2012 Global Estimate of Forced Labour | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by the International Labour Organization (ILO) (June 2012)
    The ILO estimates that 20.9 million people are victims of forced labor globally, trapped in jobs into which they were coerced or deceived and which they can not leave. The document describes in detail the revised methodology used to generate the 2012 ILO global estimate of forced labour, covering the period from 2002 to 2011, and the main results obtained.
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Girl for Sale: Trafficking Maps by American Poetry Museum and Girl Museum (2013)

Human trafficking occurs all over the world. In North America, there are over a dozen major trafficking hubs. This means that people, primarily girls and women, are brought from all over the world—by boat, airplane or car. The traffickers use false passports and paperwork so that the origin and identities of the girls are concealed or lost. They are then on sold to others who distribute them, just like any other commodity.

This interactive trafficking maps showing North American trafficking routes and hubs.

Human Trafficking, Domestic Violence, and Sexual Assault | Back to top

This section includes resources that address the intersection of human trafficking, domestic violence, and sexual violence. It includes resources for social service providers and legal advocates working directly with survivors, as well as recommendations for preventing and combatting human trafficking. State and local organizations working in this arena are also highlighted throughout.

  • Domestic Violence and Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Interface Children Family Services (2011)
    This fact sheet includes an overview of human trafficking, its impact and legal definition, as well as a description of the connection between intimate partner violence and human trafficking. Tips for safety planning are also included.
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  • The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking | PDF PDF (65 p.)
    by Donna Hughes (June 2005)
    This paper focuses on prostitution and sex trafficking. It examines the “demand” and financial profit that fuels the sex trade market and gives rise to the “exploiters” who traffic persons. State response is also examined.
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Breaking Free is a Minnesota-based non-profit and social justice/social change organization founded in 1996 by Vednita Carter.  Every year, Breaking Free helps an average of 400-500 women and girls escape systems of prostitution and sexual exploitation through advocacy, direct services, housing, and education. The main offices are located in St. Paul, Minnesota, with branches in Rochester and Minneapolis.  Breaking Free's doors are open to women and girls throughout Minnesota and the United States.

  • Human Trafficking and Domestic Violence | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Freedom Network USA (September 2012)
    This fact sheet explores the similarities and differences between human trafficking and domestic violence, recognizing three examples of cases where the two can manifest together on the basis of the same set of facts: involuntary servitude in marriage, forced prostitution and sex work, and other forced labor.
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  • The Links Between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking: A Briefing Handbook | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by Monica O’ Connor and Grainne Healy, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women & European Women’s Lobby (2006)
    This handbook promotes preventative measures to combat trafficking and includes information on the factors that drive women and children into sexual slavery, the role of demand, impacts and consequences of prostitution, and legislative responses.
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  • Enhancing Prosecutions of Human Trafficking and Related Violence Against Sexually Exploited Women | PDF PDF (10 p.)
    by Jennifer Gentile Long, JD Aequitas, Strategies in Brief, Issue #6 (May 2012)
    This issue discusses the critical strategies that can help prosecutors develop a response to human trafficking that recognizes and responds to the interconnected sexual and physical violence perpetrated against trafficked and non-trafficked victims.
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Serving Victims of Human Trafficking
  • Trafficking: Considerations and Recommendations for Battered Women’s Advocates | PDF PDF (7 p.)
    by Firoza Chic Dabby, Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence (Revised July 2013)
    This document includes information for domestic violence advocates working with victims of trafficking. After a brief overview of statistics and issue analysis, the document provides considerations and recommendations for advocates in seven key areas.
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  • Services Available to Victims of Human Trafficking: A Resource Guide for Social Service Providers | PDF PDF (32 p.)
    by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (May 2012)
    This booklet provides brief descriptions of community and State-funded resources available to victims of trafficking. Various Federal benefits and services are included as well as details on how to obtain a Certification Letter or Eligibility Letter from the HHS Office of Refugee Resettlement.
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  • Screening for Human Trafficking: Guidelines for Administering the Trafficking Victim Identification Tool | PDF PDF (36 p.)
    by the Vera Institute of Justice (June 2014)
    This screening tool is intended to be used by victim service providers and law enforcement when faced with someone who may be a victim of human trafficking.
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  • Assisting Trafficking Victims Information Packet | HTML HTML
    by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center (October 2012)
    This information packet describes practices used in cases of human trafficking, how they relate to sexual violence, and how to assist and advocate for victims of human trafficking.
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The USCCB Anti-Trafficking Program of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Migration and Refugee Services provides employment services through its Dignity of Work program and public awareness through The Amstad Movement campaign. The Anti-Trafficking Program provides information on identifying victims, how to assist victims of trafficking and the indicators of child trafficking.

  • National Victim Assistance Academy Resource Paper: Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (22 p.)
    by the Office for Victims of Crime, Training and Technical Assistance Resource Center (September 2012)
    This paper includes statistics, definitions, impact/effects on victims, effective responses, and additional information designed to educate entry-level professionals and volunteers.
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  • Directory of Training and Technical Assistance Resources for Anti- Human Trafficking Task Forces and Service Providers | PDF PDF (26 p.)
    by the Office for Victims of Crime and Bureau of Justice Assistance (n.d.)
    Developed by the Office for Victims of Crime and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, this directory is an excellent resource for practitioners and task forces seeking to expand and enhance their knowledge of anti-human trafficking practices.
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The mission of Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking (FCAHT), an International and Domestic Anti-Trafficking Agency, is to improve and provide outreach and services to victims of human trafficking throughout the State of Florida by developing support programs, networking, coalition building, training, service delivery, and referrals to victims in need. FCAHT works closely with community service providers to provide victims with emergency food and shelter, medical and psychological treatment and other services as needed to help these individuals restore their lives and their freedoms.

  • Meeting the Legal Needs of Human Trafficking Victims: An Introduction for Domestic Violence Attorneys and Advocates | PDF PDF (43 p.)
    by the American Bar Association (2009)
    This guide aims to assist legal professionals working with victims of human trafficking in recognizing trafficking victims among existing domestic violence caseloads.
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Sanctuary for Families, dedicated exclusively to serving domestic violence victims, sex trafficking victims, and their children in New York State, launched its Anti-Trafficking Initiative in 2007 to provide targeted outreach and specialized services to victims of sex trafficking. The Anti-Trafficking Initiative provides:

  • Legal representation on immigration, family law, public benefits, and other matters
  • Clinical counseling as well as trauma-specialized psychiatric services
  • Comprehensive case management
  • Community outreach and education
  • Training/technical assistance to legal, social service, and other professional audiences

  • Hitting Them Where It Hurts: Strategies for Seizing Assets in Human Trafficking Cases | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by Charlene Whitman, JD Aequitas, STRATEGIES in Brief, Issue #20 (September 2013)
    This issue discusses civil and criminal asset forfeiture as a tool in prosecuting cases of human trafficking and related crimes.
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  • The Exploitation of Trafficked Women | PDF PDF (100 p.)
    by Graeme R. Newman, Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice (2006)
    This guidebook is designed for law enforcement officials working with victims of trafficking; the four stages of human trafficking are discussed and recommendations for the response to victims of trafficking are addressed.
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  • Voices for Victims: Lawyers Against Human Trafficking Tool Kit for Bar Associations | PDF PDF (9 p.)
    by the American Bar Association Task Force on Human Trafficking
    This toolkit was developed to assist state, county, city, and local bar associations in hosting events and panel discussions regarding human trafficking as a means to raise public awareness. It contains information on the myths of human trafficking, a guide for choosing potential speakers, questions for the speakers, glossary of terms and other resources.
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  • Human Trafficking Awareness Video for First Responders | HTML HTML [7:15]
    by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (September 27, 2012)
    This video discusses patient (trafficked individual) recognition indicators for use by fire and emergency medical services providers.
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Girls Educational & Mentoring Services (GEMS), based in New York State, provides comprehensive services to address the needs of girls and young women who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking. GEMS provides:

  • Prevention and Outreach
  • Intervention
  • Youth Development
  • Educational Initiative
  • Transitional and Supportive Housing
  • Court Advocacy
  • Alternative to Incarceration Program
  • Family Court Program

  • Health Issues Affecting Trafficked Individuals | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by The Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence (2008)
    This resource provides an overview of the different types of medical challenges/barriers faced by victims of human trafficking including health problems, traumas, healthcare providers and medical records and care.
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  • Evidence-Based Mental Health Treatment for Victims of Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (13 p.)
    by Erin Williamson, Nicole M. Dutch, and Heather J. Clawson (April 2010)
    This issue brief examines the evidence-based research for treating common mental health conditions experienced by victims of human trafficking.
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Resources on Trafficking and Indigenous Women
  • Shattered Hearts: The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of American Indian Women and Girls in Minnesota | PDF PDF (132 p.)
    by Alexandra (Sandi) Pierce for Minnesota Indian Women’s Resource Center (2009)
    This material examines trends in prostitution among Native American women, including age and mode of entry; the factors that facilitate entry, including intergenerational trauma and homelessness; and barriers to exiting the sex trade. Recommendations are provided for future action.
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  • Garden of Truth: The Prostitution and Trafficking of Native Women in Minnesota | PDF PDF (72 p.)
    by Melissa Farley, Nicole Matthews, Sarah Deer, Guadalupe Lopez, Christine Stark, and Eileen Hudon for the Minnesota Indian Women's Sexual Assault Coalition and Prostitution Research & Education (October 27, 2011)
    This report reviews findings from an assessment of the life circumstances of Native women in prostitution in Minnesota, a group of women not previously studied in research such as this.
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  • Relocation Revisited: Sex Trafficking of Native Women in the United States | PDF PDF (65 p.)
    by Sarah Deer for William Mitchell Law Review (2010)
    This paper focuses on the history of sexual oppression of American Indian and Alaska Native women who suffer sexual violence at the highest rate of any ethnic group within the United States. This paper further examines the sexual exploitation of Native women through the lens of the United States’ own legal definition of trafficking.
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  • The Devastating Impact of Human Trafficking of Native Women on Indian Reservations | HTML HTML
    by Lisa Brunner, Program Specialist, National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center Hearing for Combating Human Trafficking: Federal, State, and Local Perspectives” before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (September 23, 2013)
    According to this testimony, “Native women experience violent victimization at a higher rate than any other U.S. population. Congressional findings are that Native American and Alaska Native women are raped 34.1%, more than 1 in 3, will be raped in their lifetime, 64%, more than 6 in 10, will be physically assaulted.
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  • Human Trafficking & Native Peoples in Oregon: A Human Rights Report | PDF PDF (102 p.)
    by the International Human Rights Clinic, Willamette University College of Law (May 2014)
    The report focuses specifically on Native populations within Oregon. It’s focus is one of a human rights legal fact-finding report that sets out to measure whether federal, state, and local government officials are meeting their obligations under international, national and state law in prosecuting traffickers, protecting survivors, and preventing trafficking as it involves the Native population in Oregon.
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Forced Labor and Migrant Labor | Back to top

Forced labor, also known as labor trafficking, affects individuals of all ages, genders, and races. It is prevalent in industries that have high demands for low wages and minimal or no regulation of the working conditions. Areas of documented forced labor in the United States include sex services (stripping, nude dancing, working as a hostess, etc.), domestic servitude, agriculture, sweatshops, and factory work. This section primarily focuses on the United States and provides an overview of labor trafficking, the vulnerabilities of those exploited, the characteristics of victims, as well as guides and resources for advocates to assist victims. Businesses can play a role in identifying and preventing forced labor. Included are resources specifically developed to assist businesses in identifying the use of child labor or forced labor in the production of goods and services worldwide.

  • Labor Trafficking of Domestic Workers At-A-Glance | HTML HTML
    by the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (2011)
    This document provides an overview of labor trafficking for the purpose of domestic work which is prevalent in the United States and internationally.” It includes information on domestic work in the U.S. context, defining characteristics of labor trafficking of domestic workers, vulnerabilities to human trafficking, international protections for domestic workers, federal laws, and relevant statistics.
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  • Child Labor in America: History, Policy, and Legislative Issues | PDF PDF (38 p.)
    by Gerald Mayer for the Congressional Research Service (November 2013)
    This report examines the historical issue of child labor in the United States and summarizes the legislation that has been introduced from the 108th to the 113th Congress.
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  • Tough, Fair, and Practical: A Human Rights Framework for Immigration Reform in the United States | PDF PDF (27 p.)
    by Human Rights Watch (July 2010)
    This report proposes a framework for improving U.S. immigration law that would give immigrant crime victims a chance to seek justice, protect workers, respect the private and family life of longtime residents, and provide fair treatment for immigrants who come before the courts.
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  • Thirty Percent of Migrant Laborers in San Diego Experience Trafficking | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by the San Diego State University Department of Sociology (July 2013)
    According to data from a 2012 study, this NIJ In Short discusses how more than 30 percent of Spanish-speaking workers in San Diego County, Calif., have experienced an incident that meets the official definition of human trafficking. Agriculture had the lowest rate of victimization among all businesses.
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Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST) is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual human rights organization located in Los Angeles that identifies victims of trafficking and provides a three-pronged empowerment approach which includes Social Services, Legal Services, and Outreach and Training.

  • Rape in the Fields | HTML HTML [53:41]
    by Frontline, PBS (June 25, 2013)
    In this documentary, Lowell Bergman investigates the hidden reality of rape on the job for migrant women working in America’s fields and packing plants.
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  • Cultivating Fear: The vulnerability of immigrant farmworkers in the US to sexual violence and sexual harassment | PDF PDF (95 p.)
    by Human Rights Watch (May 2012)
    This report discusses the experiences of immigrant farmworkers in the United States with a range of sexually violent behaviors. The report suggests that these experiences are common, reporting is limited, and the involvement of a victim advocate may increase reporting.
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  • Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor: A Toolkit for Responsible Businesses | HTML HTML
    by The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)
    This online Toolkit is a guide for business developed by the U.S. Government focusing on child labor and forced labor practices.
    + View Summary

Trafficking of Children and Youth | Back to top

Human trafficking victimizes children and youth through a range of commercial sex and forced labor schemes. This may include prostitution, pornography, sweatshop work, military service, and migrant farming. Traffickers focus on individuals who are without means, lack stable social support or family support. Runaway and homeless youth, foster youth, LGBT youth, and Native American youth are at a high risk of being trafficked.

Using fraud, force and coercion to “recruit” victims, traffickers then resort to violence, threats of violence and abuse to control their victims. Traffickers can include immediate family members, boyfriends, family friends, employers and strangers. The resources in the Trafficking of Children and Youth section focus on at-risk youth in the United States. Resources identify the scope of the problem, the victims, and programs and services available. 

Public Awareness
  • Bought and Sold: Helping Young People Escape From Commercial Sexual Exploitation | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by JBS International, Inc. for the Family and Youth Services Bureau, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children and Families, and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (August 2012)
    This brochure explains the impact of commercial sexual exploitation on young people. Outlined information includes: which youth are more at risk to be victimized, activities that be considered as or lead to commercial exploitation of youth, signs of sexual exploitation, the needs of victims of sexual exploitation, when and who to share information and resources for service providers and victims.
    + View Summary

  • Framing the Issue of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by MISSSEY, Inc. (Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth) (2009)
    This document outlines the key issues facing the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and the techniques used by exploiters, the CSEC risk factors, and the use of technology in CSEC.
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Believe in Zero Exploited Children Campaign by UNICEF

The End Trafficking project is the U.S. Fund for UNICEF's initiative to raise awareness about child trafficking and mobilize communities to take meaningful action to help protect children. In partnership with concerned individuals and groups, the End Trafficking project aims to bring us all closer to a day when there are ZERO exploited children.

Reports/Framework
  • Struggling to Survive: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer/Questioning Homeless Youth on the Streets of California | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Shahera Hyatt for the California Homeless Youth Project (March 2011)
    This report reviews the reasons why LGBTQ youth become homeless and the challenges they face on the street, including being forced into trafficking and sex work due to difficulties they face in finding jobs.
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  • And Boys Too | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Sara Ann Friedman for ECPAT-USA (2013)
    This paper discusses the lack of recognition of the commercial sexual exploitation of boys in the United States.
    + View Summary
  • Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States | PDF PDF (478 p.)
    by the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2013)
    In this report, the committee concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches that build upon the capabilities of people and entities from a range of sectors. In addition, such efforts will need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes.
    + View Summary
  • 2013 Protected Innocence Challenge: State Report Cards on the Legal Framework of Protection for the Nation’s Children | PDF PDF (128 p.)
    by Shared Hope International (2013)
    The Protected Innocence Challenge is a study of US state law to assist advocates in their work to end domestic minor sex trafficking. An interactive map provides each state’s ranking on 41 key legislative components that must be addressed in the state’s laws in order to effectively respond to the crime of domestic minor trafficking.
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  • 2013 Statutory Protective Responses to Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Victims | PDF PDF (40 p.)
    by Shared Hope International (August 2013)
    These flowcharts are intended to provide an overview of the statutory structure of service and placement responses to DMST victims to contribute to the ongoing conversation regarding promising approaches, pervasive challenges and the need to establish new systems versus changing existing systems.
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  • Domestic Child Sex Trafficking and the Juvenile Justice System | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Human Rights Project for Girls (Rights4Girls) (n.d.)
    This paper outlines the need to identify child victims of sex trafficking prior to their arrest for juvenile prostitution and the need for appropriate services and safeguards for these victims.
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  • Trafficking in Persons Symposium: Final Report | PDF PDF (100 p.)
    by AMBER Alert Training and Technical Assistance Program Team and Fox Valley Technical College (2012)
    This report summarizes best practices for responding to child trafficking, as identified by the 127 participants, as well as their recommendations for addressing current challenges. The report served as the foundation for the development of the AMBER Alert Training and Technical Assistance Program’s current training programs for states and communities.
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  • The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: America's Prostituted Children | PDF PDF (81 p.)
    by Shared Hope International (May 2009)
    The report reveals shocking findings of three years of intensive research on the issue of child sex trafficking in America from ten locations across the U.S.
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  • Adolescent Girls in the Minnesota Sex Trade: Tracking Study Results for February to November 2010 | PDF PDF (10 p.)
    by The Schapiro Group for the Women’s Funding Group (2010)
    This report details the results of several statewide studies of commercial sexual exploitation of female children in the United States. The results indicate a significant number of girls under age 18 are involved in the sex trade, with rates varying state-by-state. The results are part of a multiyear quarterly tracking study.
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Services/System Response
  • Finding Services for Runaway and Homeless Victims of Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (46 p.)
    by the Runaway and Homeless Youth Training and Technical Assistance Centers, Missing and Exploited Children’s Program (MECP) (n.d.)
    The objectives of this webinar are to: recognize characteristics of runaway and homeless youth (RHY) and the trauma they have experiences, review the Family Youth Services Bureau funded RHY programs, review how the programs meet the need of RHY, review the eligibility requirements for accessing services and how to locate a program in a particular geographic area.
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  • Guidance to States and Services on Addressing Human Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) (2013)
    This document outlines the scope of the problem, the needs of human trafficking victims, the need for a coordinated effort among Tribal, State, Local, and Federal levels to prevent, identify, and serve trafficking victims, the role of screening and assessment in identifying possible trafficking victims, and the use of evidence-based interventions for serving vulnerable youth populations.
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  • National Colloquium 2012 Final Report: An Inventory and Evaluation of the Current Shelter and Services Response to Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking | PDF PDF (244 p.)
    by Shared Hope International, ECPAT-USA and The Protection Project at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (2013)
    This is an inventory and evaluation of the current shelter and services response to domestic minor sex trafficking.
    + View Summary
  • Domestic Child Sex Trafficking and the Juvenile Justice System | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Human Rights Project for Girls (Rights4Girls)
    This paper outlines the need to identify child victims of sex trafficking prior to their arrest for juvenile prostitution and the need for appropriate services and safeguards for these victims.
    + View Summary
  • Child Sex Trafficking on the Internet and the Communications Decency Act | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by the Human Rights Project for Girls (Rights4Girls) (n.d.)
    This issue brief provides information on the Communications Decency Act (CDA) - its immunity provisions, exceptions, and historical legal challenges - and the Tech Community’s self-regulation. Includes recommendations including the open request for the tech community collaboration to combat the issue of child exploitation and trafficking on the Internet.
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  • Legal Services Assessment for Trafficked Children | PDF PDF (71 p.)
    by Katherine Kaufka Walts, Linda Rio Reichmann and Catherine Lee, Center for the Human Rights of Children (CHRC) (August 2013)
    This report provides the results of a CHRC led research project that provides information on the gaps in legal services and identifies the opportunities for improving outcomes. Also included is input from service providers around the country for a national comparison.
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  • Building Child Welfare Response to Child Trafficking | PDF PDF (119 p.)
    by the Center for the Human Rights of Children (CHRC) and the International Organization for Adolescents (IOFA) (2011)
    This handbook provides policies, protocols and forms for incorporating child trafficking identification and response mechanisms into state and private child welfare systems using Illinois as a case study.
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U.S. Laws and Legislation | Back to top

This section provides background information on recent iterations of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. It also includes resources designed for use by state legislators, as well as international conventions and human rights protocols related to human rights.

  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2013 (Title XII of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013) | HTML HTML
    from the U.S. Department of State (2013)
    The TVPRA will offer increased support to the State Department’s diplomatic engagement, bolster protections for vulnerable children and domestic workers, and enable effective partnerships to bring services to survivors and prosecute traffickers.
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  • Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 | HTML HTML
    from the U.S. Department of State (2004)
    Section 7202 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act established the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center to achieve greater integration and overall effectiveness in the U.S. government's enforcement and other response efforts, and to work with foreign governments to address the separate but related issues of alien smuggling, trafficking in persons, and criminal support of clandestine terrorist travel.
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  • PROTECT Act of 2003 | PDF PDF (47 p.)
    from the U.S Department of Homeland Security (2003)
    The PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today) intends to protect children from abuse and sexual exploitation, a common element of child human trafficking.
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  • Resource Guide for State Legislators: Model Provisions for State anti-Trafficking Laws | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by the National Institute on State Policy on Trafficking of Women and Girls of the Center for Women Policy Studies (July 2005)
    This guide presents a series of model legislative provisions that state legislators can use to create either a comprehensive state anti-trafficking law or to begin with one or more of the recommended legislative initiatives.
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Resources, Protections, and Benefits for Trafficking Victims | Back to top

In the United States, human trafficking affects U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents as well as foreign nationals who have no legal status. The U.S. State Department estimates that nearly one million individuals are trafficked across international borders annually and that 18,000 to 20,000 are brought into the United States. (National Immigrant Justice Center, 2011-2013). Trafficking victims are typically illegally transported into the United States. They are forced into prostitution and involuntary labor to repay debts – often entry in the U.S. ( U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2014). Because many foreign-born victims do not have legal status in the U.S., traffickers are provided with the ability to control trafficking victims in these manners. Immigration relief can provide a way for victims to feel secure and stabilize their status in the U.S. without legal status, victims may not be able to stay in the U.S., or they may be limited in their access to victim assistance services. Immigration relief can help stabilize a victim without legal status (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2014).

Trafficking victims require both short-term and long-term services and supports, which can include everything from victim advocacy, mental and dental health care, food, shelter and housing, legal services, education and job training, immigration services and legal assistance.

The following resources include reports on domestic and immigration remedies for trafficked persons, including temporary immigration status under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act and the T Visa. These remedies and processes can be complex, so resources that break down the information are also included.

Directory of Crime Victim Services, Office for Victims of Crime

The OVC website offers an online directory that helps service providers and individuals locate crime victim services from local, national and international agencies. Victim services are searchable by location, type of victimization, or service needed. Links to service organizations, hotline numbers for national victim serving organizations, and referral agencies are provided.

Domestic: U.S. Citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents
  • The National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    The National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program provides funding for comprehensive case management services on a per capita basis to foreign victims of trafficking and potential victims seeking HHS Certification in any location in the United States. The grantees provide case management to assist a victim of trafficking to become certified, and other necessary services after Certification, through a network of sub-awardees in locations throughout the country. These grants ensure the provision of case management, referrals, and emergency assistance (such as food, clothing, and shelter) to victims of human trafficking and certain family members. They help victims gain access to housing, employability services, mental health screening and therapy, medical care, and some legal services, enabling victims to live free of violence and exploitation.
  • 2-1-1
    This resource provides free and confidential information and referral to local community services including: rent assistance, food banks, affordable housing, health resources, job training programs, child care, elderly care and financial literacy programs. Resources are located by entering a zip code, city or state.
  • Benefits.gov
    This is the official benefits website of the U.S. government. It provides information on which government benefits you may be eligible to receive and how to apply for assistance.
  • Services Available to Victims of Human Trafficking: A Resource Guide for Social Service Providers | PDF PDF (32 p.)
    by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (May 2012)
    This booklet provides brief descriptions of community and State-funded resources available to victims of trafficking. Various Federal benefits and services are included as well as details on how to obtain a Certification Letter or Eligibility Letter from the HHS Office of Refugee Resettlement.
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Foreign Nationals
  • Human Trafficking and Immigrant Rights | PDF PDF ( p.)
    by Freedom Network USA (2013)
    This brief report covers topics including barriers to accessing immigration remedies for trafficked persons and increased vulnerability of workers that lack immigration protections. It also outlines recommendations regarding access to legal immigration status.
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  • Continued Presence: Temporary Immigration Status for Victims of Human Trafficking | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, The Blue Campaign (2013)
    This fact sheet defines “continued presence,” explains why it is an important tool for federal state and local law enforcement, offers information on the application process, describes who authorizes Continued Presence applications and who qualifies for this immigration status.
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The Blue Campaign is the “voice” of the Department of Home Security (DHS) efforts to combat human trafficking. DHS identifies and stabilizes victims of trafficking-providing immigration relief while investigating and prosecuting traffickers.

Blue Campaign Components:

  • Empowering Survivors: Legal Rights of Immigrant Victims of Sexual Assault | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Leslye Orloff (2013)
    Chapter 10: U-Visas: Victims of Criminal Activity outlines information to assist advocates and attorneys in identifying sexual assault, domestic violence and other crime victims who may be eligible for U-visa immigration status and to provide resources to help advocates and attorneys work together to prepare U-visa applications for immigrant crime victims.
    + View Summary
  • Questions and Answers: Victims of Human Trafficking, T Nonimmigrant Status | HTML HTML
    by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
    This webpage discusses the T Nonimmigrant Status (T Visa) which is set aside for those who are or have been victims of human trafficking and are willing to assist law enforcement in the investigation or prosecution of acts of trafficking.
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  • T Nonimmigrant Status – Immigration relief for Victims of Human Trafficking Video | HTML HTML [09:47]
    by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (narrator: Chis Bentley)
    Description.
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  • Questions and Answers: Victims of Criminal Activity, U Nonimmigrant Status | HTML HTML
    by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
    This webpage provides questions and answers about the U nonimmigrant visa. The U nonimmigrant visa is reserved for victims of crimes who have suffered mental or physical abuse and are willing to assist in the investigation or prosecution of the criminal activity.
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  • Immigration Relief for Vulnerable Populations: Human Trafficking, Crime Victims, Domestic Violence and Child Abuse | PDF PDF (30 p.)
    by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (December 13, 2011)
    This webinar recording focuses on immigration relief for vulnerable populations, offering great remedies for victims of violence such as the T-nonimmigrant status for victims of Human Trafficking, the U-nonimmigrant status for victims of crimes, Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) relief for domestic violence victims, and Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJ) for child abuse, abandonment and neglect victims.
    + View Summary
Children
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children’s Bureau, Administration for Children and Families (ACF), HHS
    The Gateway provides access to resources and services such as national hotlines and state child abuse reporting numbers, federal child services clearinghouses; organizations dealing with child protection/abuse, family and domestic violence, foster care, health, mental health, substance abuse, and state child welfare agencies.

The Tahirih Justice Center provides national legal services to women and children fleeing human rights abuses. The Center also leads national advocacy campaigns for changes in laws and policies to protect women and girls from violence.

Interpretation/Translation | Back to top

  • Interpretation/Translation Victim Translation Assistance (VITA)
    VITA is a tool using audio messages recorded and translated into 40 languages that allows law enforcement officials to provide a level of basic assistance to victims of human trafficking. Instructions for use with both Windows and Mac are available online as well as a VITA Tool User Presentation.
  • Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID)
    RID has the following resources available: interpreter associations, including culturally specific-serving organizations, American Sign Language Research, Deaf/Hard of Hearing Associations, international resources, information and resources on deafness.
  • National Association of the Deaf
    The national civil rights organization that represents the deaf and hard of hearing individuals in the U.S. State and local affiliates are available via the website.

Organizations | Back to top

Governmental
Non-Governmental

Acronyms and Glossary | Back to top

The glossary below offers a brief list of acronyms related to the content of this collection. For a comprehensive glossary of commonly used acronyms and terminology, the ABA Task Force on Human Trafficking offers a Human Trafficking Glossary & Glossary of Human Trafficking Acronyms, which also lists key U.S. national and international organizations that are working to combat various forms of trafficking.

3P

Protection, Prevention, Prosecution

CSEC

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DOJ

Department of Justice

HHS

The United States Department of Health and Human Services

ICE

United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement

NGO

Non-governmental Organization

NHTRC

National Human Trafficking Resource Center

OAS

Organization of American States

ORR

Office of Refugee Resettlement

OVC

Office for Victims of Crime, Department of Justice

PITF

President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking

J/TIP

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Department of State

TIP Report

Trafficking in Persons Report

TVPA

Trafficking Victims Protection Act

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

USCIS

United States Citizenship and Immigration Services